Rural System's

The Water System Group
Privatizing Water Resource Management for Sustained Citizen Benefits

A proposal by Giles, October, 2004

See also The Crescent Crew of Rural System…Just Dreaming written by Giles in September, 2007

Also see Drinking Water Group (2010)

This is a proposal to create a subsystem of Rural System called the Water System Group. It is one of 70 proposed interlocking groups of a diverse for-profit conglomerate described at, specifically at ../aRuralBusiness/DesignA1.htm.

It emerges from real concerns about watershed management within western Virginia, Tennessee, West Virginia, and North Carolina; about new water conflicts; proposals for inter-basin transfers; and unresolved issues of ground water quantity as well as quality. It addresses water as the backbone of a complex recreational industry. There have been thousands of watershed and water-related studies and the literature on these topics is very great. Studies go unreported, filed, and many confirm past studies that reflect the great intrinsic variability of such systems, the great differences in needs of different people, the high costs of water developments. They confirm the great conflicts between private and public concerns for an essential resource, once very abundant, but now diminished in quantity, quality, and increasing in several risks to humans beyond those of water shortage. They confirm the overlaps and conflicts among those studying land and its waters as natural resources.

The proposal is important because it presents a means for the proposed Rural System, a philanthropic for-profit company to use past studies, data now available and collected at high public costs, and new computer and satellite technology to address a unified objectives-oriented approach to solving the above problems and to sustain that effort, heretofore impossible, in changing political, agency staffing, and budgetary times.

The context of the work is that of Rural System and the results as well as the support emerge from forestry, fisheries, planning, nature, ranging and other components of that enterprise. For example, the successful project will serve forest certification needs (Smartwood) for private landowners of the region. It will also serve the courts or clients in various litigation action. It will serve realtors and developers seeking essential local, timely knowledge about water supplies. It will serve to establish baseline information to prevent or deter legal action of various types. It will reduce the time required by local governments for water information and improve the quality of that information. Where governments were the only units available to do data collection and analyses of water resources, abilities are now widespread; government activity suppresses free enterprise related to providing water-related intelligence and services, government work lags in technology as well as in fiscal sustainability, and work is over compartmentalized within agencies, often leading to sub-optimum presentations for critical decision situations.

The proposed project will complement Rural System, serve other resource enterprises, and provide stable funding for water and watershed-related studies and system development efforts of select staff of local colleges and universities.

Project differences from past work and dimension of success include diversity, synergism, harvesting past data and software as well as knowledge, gaining from GIS and GPS developments, and being able to present results as well as educational materials via the Internet. Its emphasis is a total water system for a large region. Often using "watershed," it deals with a stated region and is not limited to functions of topographic crests for the land use issues and objectives rarely relate well to that feature. It uses a 10 x 10-meter map cell, a "pixel" or Alpha unit, typically multiple factors related to a column 1 km above and below such a map cell.

It uses the symbolic representation of general systems theory (Von Bertalanffy 1958) with the feedforward revision and special emphasis on objectives. It creates a water system that we shall describe.

The Nature of Conflicts and Past Difficulties in Developing Such a Water System

Foresters need water for tree complexes (ecological communities and even interlocking root systems) and site quality is strongly related to measured precipitation. Fog drip is rarely considered when estimating site-specific precipitation and is influenced by the presence of trees of different type and age. Effective precipitation relates to water entering the root zone and is a function of rainfall amount, recent rainfall, and litter layer volume. Evapotranspiration models are complex and have recently been developed for GIS applications with adjustments for slope and aspect. Debates range on tree water stress influence on conifer tree pests as well as effects of global warming on evapotranspiration.

USDA Forest Serv- Monagahela, 1980's plan doc.

Runoff from forests is a function of evapotranspiration and the amount and source relate to disease organisms borne by the water. The runoff is a clear public health problem, well removed from concerns of the production forester. The key local pathogens (e.g.,E. coli) are those of raccoons (a game and fur animal of great local interest) and giardiasis common in beaver and spread by pet dogs accompanying recreationists on hikes in "preserved" public watersheds.

People with wildlife and ecological interests are concerned about watersheds since half of terrestrial animals have open water in one of their life stages. Few in the public understand the separation of "fish" and "wildlife" and both have evident needs for the right amount and quality of water. Water temperature is as critical as substances in water and all are components of "quality." Fishery staff are as concerned about maintaining riparian vegetation for achieving desired water temperatures as others are about tending it well for songbird habitat or for controlling sediment from livestock grazing in streams. Rural roads, often poorly designed, contribute substantial amounts of sediment to streams, changing their temperature, suitability for fish and fish-food organism, increasing water cleanup costs, and reducing the life expectancy or function of high-price dams. The dams favor certain fish, favoring certain anglers, all parts of a complex and difficult-to-value recreation/tourism/industry market.

Lakeshores, usually privately developed, need intensive management or they contribute to lake water decline in quality for recreation and the lake fishery…and land value. Often remote from central water supplies, these homes or developments depend on well waters (still used by 15% of US citizens) for all purposes. The ground water in the complex fractured geological terrain of the region is barely studied and well data are scant. The caverns and giant solution channels of Karst topography in some areas produce untold analytical problems assuring great uncertainty in water supplies and quality. Ground water resource problems loom on the horizon as reports increase of depletion of great aquifers, thus suggesting the needs for improved local ground water recharge as we begin to see the presence of toxic substances and gasoline from many sources now infiltrating into the present water "table."

Proposed inter-basin transfers of water aid people in one area and restrict the future opportunities for those living in the contributing area. Layered with ecological, land use, ethical and equity issues, all usually highly litigated, the transfers, if they occur, portend continuing inter-generational problems.

When we add to the above topics of flood plains and their description and protection, storm water management, lake and pond management (including evaporation issues), soil moisture management and irrigation, wildlife waterholes and ponds, land value related to cold-water stream fishing, wetland management, non-point pollution from agricultural land, and the role of air pollution in water pollution, the results are clear. No agency has "gotten it all together." No agency will, and since the needs are so clear and so great and increasing, it is essential that an alternative means be created. It will not be found. A private (perhaps private-government -partnership) organization needs to be created to do so. It will not be done instantly but major building blocks are now available and conspicuous growth of a viable vital group is now possible.

The special new dimension of the present system it that by design it seeks to show self-sustaining bounded profits over a 150 year planning period within the context of Rural System. It is unlikely that the Water System Management Group can be sustained alone. Members and investors will benefit. Landowners will benefit. Citizens will benefit. Cooperating professors of local colleges and universities and their students will benefit financially as they achieve and report on Designated studies and development projects.

The Context

The proposed work is for a rural county, town or village, owner/manager of a large tract of land, or for a group of people potentially affected by a large government project. It is regional in that limited data sets and ecological models are used. It is specific to regional citizens and has only a limited means for addressing needs of national and international visitors. Its only major financial dimension is that the current cost of changing W can likely be estimated very well, well within the limits of the estimated cost of proposed change for which the analysis is done. In general the work is a bounded benefit to cost analysis with emphasis on citizen-described and quantified benefits, all leading to the premise and that modern decision makers will maximize perceived expected feasible benefits or alternatively select from a set an alternative that will least change an index of their quality of life, R*

The Objective

Few people know that the major reason for perceived lack of watershed planning or for water resource management problems is that people do not know the objective for doing so and thus they cannot evaluate whether they have "done it." Almost every act to achieve any objective in the rural environment affects water. This may be judged good or bad but the point… everything affects the water system objectives. To state any water objective implies that many other components of the Rural System will be affected. The objectives of proposals are often in conflict.

It is now possible to formulate an objective. We'll call it "big W" (W) for general appeal, and will describe it in detail (see for example its treatment in Forest Faunal Systems)but, for now, assume it is possible to compute and that it can be displayed to all citizens in a region (like a western states' daily fire hazard rating, a local community chest fund drive level of success, or a board of directors graph of annual sales). It is an expression (for each individual to interpret) of how well the community is achieving its stated water system objectives.

Simultaneously displayed is r-star (R*), how well the total set of town, county, or regional objectives are being achieved. Achieving all water system objectives may possibly lower R* and may suggest over-allocation of resources in this one dimension. This condition, however, may be unlikely and the progress together can be motivational. Balance among objectives that are important to citizens and equitable among them is the topic being stressed.

W as well as R* (to be described as needed), is a function of (1) each item and its descriptive unit, (2) units needed (demand), (3) weighted relative importance of a unit, (4) expectancy (vs. risk of failure), and (5) substitutability. There are constraints as well, including those called legal, variety, and intergenerational. (Median values are used, typically with a beta estimate.) Citizens are asked to provide their inputs. The entries are computer aided. Entries need to be made only every few years. If they will not be made (limited time, etc.), a panel or elected officials might make the entries. If the entries are a problem and not available, weights are simulated (described below).

Projects that are proposed for study and evaluation by the Water System Management Group as a service function under contract (or evaluated after occurrence e.g., judging the impact of a flood on a community) are of four universal types: (1) point (e.g., a small building), (2) line (a natural gas line), (3) area (e.g., a tax regulation), and (4) volume (e.g., a tall building or deep mine).

The proposed system would analyze the likely effects of a proposal (e.g., to build a dam) on the objectives of a group of people (e.g., a town) and express the estimated change that the project, when complete, would make on W and R* over 5, 50 and 150 years. It could evaluate and compare the likely effects on W and R* of no action and three alternative proposals. These four options are limited due to computational costs but especially citizens' ability to deal with the stresses of such complex decisions. The 4 options over three periods themselves result from analyses of millions of alternatives using computer optimization. (An energy-cost function estimate for alternatives can be developed, greatly adding to the complexity for decision makers.)

Citizen decision makers when dealing with very diverse water-related projects and when dealing with TV-generation citizens not participating widely in public meetings and discussions find such decisions very difficult and uncertain. We use a simulation procedure to assist. We show the 3 x 4 options above (1) when citizens are perceived to have random and changing values, (2) when all estimated citizen values are taken at a low relative value, (3) all at a high value, and (4) a group-specific value (the likely consequences in terms of W and R* when the values of an offended or especially-benefited group of vocal citizens is considered as a special case.)

We believe that 48 options (the product of (3 x 4) and 4) from which to make a selection is near the limit for most high-level project decisions and is more than considered in many court and land-use decisions. Decision makers will iteratively consider and use this matrix, screening infeasible and implausible units to arrive at a decision zone. These reflect millions of alternatives in pathways. Decision makers are expected to make choices that stabilize or increase W and R* or some ratio of them. Not to do so will suggest alternative decision processes that need to be articulated, studied, and perhaps integrated with the system or otherwise explained.

Major Inputs and Processes

Citizen inputs to the big W system are major. Education and information can change these inputs. The system operates on modern educational theory related to learning as "changed behavior." It allows decision variables to be targeted for cost-effective local information and education systems. In uses hand-held visual information display technology and broadband technology as available.

It builds a system to predict citizen inputs since citizen weights are known to change with age and other factors. Simplifying the difficult and lengthy input process is essential for the system to be responsive and reflect current citizen perceptions of "quality of life."

It builds a regional 30-year climatic information system. We adjust models, at least using auto-regression procedures to begin to adjust for global warming and local land use and urban change effects.

We combine GIS work with finite-element models now in use, using the alpha-unit concept for cell-specific modeling given that we have over 100 pieces of information about each map cell. We use a production function concept that is wed to concepts of ecological succession or transition curves. We emphasize the abiotic dimensions as we build data to "control" for the high variability in plant, animal, and human communities. We have the new advantages of GPS as well as past studies allowing us to "train" images based on roadside community surveys. These procedures are made possible by advances in technology (software as well as hardware) and past work with solar radiation, precipitation, wind, temperature, evapotranspiration, and biological information systems. They converge with new designs for dynamic planning systems (see The Trevey in that allow transmission of analyses to citizens and decision makers.


Discussed as "adaptive management" in some circles, this system uses feedback at all points. It is a dynamic system undergoing improvement and increasing precision … where it is found and proven to be needed… not just as an exercise. It stresses proper sample sizes but used iterative improvement in confidence rather than costly high confidence level and accuracy requirements. It works to improve the total system in balanced fashion, rather that great precision in any one part. It does not do field experiments to test the system; all efforts are addressed to gaining refinements in parts of the total system to which decisions are sensitive. Not a total ecological system, this is a system to assist the best decision makers in communities for the future. It simulates the decision maker, not the natural or built system. High on analyses, the system moves toward improving decision-making paradigms and alternatives.


While futurism is encouraged, feedforward is a process, a total system of looking ahead and making revisions in the current system so that the results are seen as best over the stated planning period. A building, for example, built now may be under occupied and later over crowded but when built was best for the planned investment period. The future cannot be proven but decisions are made that seem "bad" and excessively costly for the immediate future. Predictive power is said to be a reason for science but beyond the realm of science. We integrate these concepts, improving prediction, documenting change, and evaluating models and decisions based upon them.

We strive to work with alternative ways of knowing, the appropriate epistemological bases, and study to include Wolfram's concepts in A New Kind of Science.

Most of the parts of the privatization work described above has been done piecemeal over many years (see the list below) with great inefficiencies, lost progress, inadequate funding, digressions in objectives and the normal blockages in studies. Most has been done without modern databases, software, and satellites. Much has been done with undergraduate teams suggesting their unlimited potential when they are well organized and guided. Most have been done with graduate students, who could have done more in planned and sustained/overlapping progress aided by equipment, space, and assistants and if society had profited by their work (a plan is available). Progress has been made. The foundations are now laid. The needs increase. The potentials for work by a town or county in cooperation with its university with a commercial partner and a not-for profit organization to work on poorly-recognized or poorly-agreed elements of public decision (e.g., history, art, esthetics, religion, etc.) seem evident. "Sustained development" has to mean sustained financial support and that is not feasible in a changing local or national (or both) political climate. An alternative is needed. Every town or county does not have to have its own system as suggested here. It will be clear to all that R* is the result of a comprehensive planning system. Plans are outmoded; always out of date; zoning creates suboptimal communities and cannot accommodate the "new idea." Planning systems are needed.
Bob Giles, January, 2005
The databases, computers, and knowledge to do this with excellence for every town and county are not available. Cooperative work is needed. Efficiencies can be gained; taxes reduced; and employment provided and assured when the consequences of poor decisions are not visited upon average people being subjected to new decisions made in old-fashioned ways.

There has to be a way to start and one way is to form a corporation, a worker- owned enterprise to do it. Independent, it would tend to encourage the growth of Rural System and become part of it. Towns and counties would be invited members. A prototype is needed… for there must be something to sell (see the General Store ../aRuralSystem/index.htm). That would be reports, testimony, and monthly analyses for TV and public meeting presentations of W and R*

An investment(s) is needed to create the prototype. This is primarily for staff, office space, and equipment. Part may be gained for enterprise creation opportunities, from research results that build system components, and from personal investments in specialty components (lawns, gardens, impervious surfaces, erosion, trails, etc.) A managerial and marketing staff will emerge.

This document and those that it stimulates need to be discussed. The needs for results of such discussions leading to action for developing sustained water system management are all too evident.

See Earth Trends information on water

I hope I can answer questions and assist. Call me at 540-552-8672 or email

Collecting the Drops: A Water Sustainability Tool ( and Connecting the Drops Towards Creative Water Strategies: A Water Sustainability Tool (

Metrics NavigatorTM (

Exploring Pathways to a Sustainable Enterprise, SD PlannerTM and the SD Gateway (


I regret that the extensive literature reviews and work of my graduate students and my studies over the years has been poorly reported. Much of it has been oriented to the concept presented in this proposal. The following are listed to suggest the resources available for progress. Other bibliographies are available.

See national water data for local use

Select student theses and dissertations

Lobdell, C. H. 1972. MAST: A budget allocation system for wildlife management. Unpub. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. vi + 227 pp.

Smart, C. W. 1976. A computer-assisted technique for planning minimum impact transmission right of way routes. Unpub. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. xiii + 192 p.

Koeln, G. T. 1980. A computer-assisted general aviation airport location and evaluation system for Virginia. Unpub. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. xii + 235 pp.

Williamson, J. F., Jr. 1981. Dynamic classification: conceptual development and applications in wildlife management. Unpub. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. x + 231 pp.

Ezealor, A. U. 1995. Ecological profile of a Nigerian Sahelian wetland: toward integrated vertebrate pest damage management. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. 231 pp.

Trani, M. K. (Margaret Trani-Griep). 1996. Landscape pattern analysis related to forest wildlife resources. PhD Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

Fales, R. R. 1969. Some applications of computer-generated maps to wildlife management, Unpub. MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. 83 pp.

Smart, C. W. 1970. A computer model of wildlife rabies epizootics and an analysis of incidence patterns. Unpub. M. S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. ix + 126 pp.

Rayburn, E. B. 1972. A measure of land for supporting deer populations. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. ix + 195 pp.

Graf, R. L. 1973. Methods for delineating wildlife and other environmental management regions. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., xii + 164 p.

Smith, J. L. 1973. An analysis of the environment stability of Virginia. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Tech. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. xiv + 229 p. (June)

Walls, M. L. 1974. A dynamic white-tailed deer population simulator and lessons from its use. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. viii + 167 p.

Jones, A. B. III. 1976. POWER: a computer information system for land use decisions. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., vi + 194 p.

Lawrence, G. E., Jr. 1976. A computer-based insolation mapping algorithm for large areas. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va.

McDonald, M. V. 1977. A computer information system for Virginia counties. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., viii + 99 p.

Saunders, E. F. 1977. WATFLOW: A computer system to aid in reclaiming watersheds affected by surface mines. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., xii + 296 p.

LeFranc, M. N., Jr. 1977. A computer decision aid for reclaiming Eastern abandoned surface mines. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., x + 144 p.

Hamm, C. P. 1978. A soil information algorithm for the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Province of Virginia. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., vi + 75 p.

Gladwin, D. N. 1978. An airport environmental information system for Virginia. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., viii + 307 p.

Hoar, A. R. 1980. A methodology for mapping probable ranges of endangered terrestrial mammals within selected areas of Virginia. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., xi + 191 p.

Francis, D. L. 1980. A computer-based wind information system for land use planning in Virginia. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., vii + 207 p.

Cason, T. W., Jr. 1980. Phaedrus: a system for the preliminary environmental evaluation of large physical projects [e.g., inter-basin water transfer]. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly, Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., viii + 305 pp.

Anderson, D. R. 1981. A climatological information system for natural resource management: temperature. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., vii + 220 pp.

Ziewitz, J. W. 1982. A computer-assisted method for deriving soil maps of Virginia counties. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 175 pp.

Kroll, G. 1982. Computer aids for reclaiming eastern surface mines as rangelands. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 272 pp.

Fies, M. L. 1983. Predicting forest cover types in Southwestern Virginia using topographic information. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 134 pp.

Zack, J.S. 1983. Geographic information system strategies for improving Landsat land use classification accuracy. MS Thesis, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, VA 487p.

Martin, S. M. 1988. Select geomorphological components of wildlife habitat in the Ridge and Valley Province of Virginia. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 203 pp.

Gruen, K. A. 1993. Mesoscale temperature estimates for western Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 164 pp.

Wajda, R. K. 1993. A site-specific rainfall model for Western Virginia ecosystems. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. xi + 143 pp.

Casabona, G. 1994. GIS Procedures for analyzing wildlife topics in a National Park in Virginia. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. 99 pp.

Findley, S. H. 1994. Hydrologic modeling as a decision-making tool in wildlife management. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. ix + 164 pp.

Hassouna, K. M. 1997. Developing a natural resource data base for geographic information system. M.F. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. 81 pp.

McCombs, J. W. 1998. Geographic information system topographic factor maps for wildlife management. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. 141 pp.

Klopfer, S. D. 1998. Insolation, precipitation, and moisture maps for a Virginia geographic information system. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. 184 pp. electronic thesis access:

Morton, D. 1998. Landcover map of Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

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Related Publications by Giles

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1961. Overlay mapping as a technique for improved management of upland game. Release 212, Ohio Cooperative Wildl. Research Unit. (Paper presented at 23rd Midwest Wildlife Conference, Lincoln, Nebraska.)

Peterle, T. J. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1961. New tracer techniques for evaluating the effects of an insecticide on the ecology of a forest fauna (progress report). U.S. AEC report TID-13650. 22 pp. (NSA 15-38 910).

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1962. Timber-wildlife coordination concepts for large eastern forests. Trans. N. A. Wildl. Conf. 27: 402-412.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1963. "Instrumentation" in H. S. Mosby, 1963 (2nd Ed.) Manual of Game Investigational Techniques, The Wildlife Society, Blacksburg, Va., pp. 1-21. Giles, R. H., Jr. 1964. The ecology of a small forested watershed treated with the insecticide malathion - S35. Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus. 418 pp. multilithed (Univ. Microfilm, Ann Arbor, Michigan) order no. 64-9563.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1965. Ideas on the role of operations research in big game management. Paper presented at the annual meeting, Northwest Section of the Wildlife Society, Missoula, Montana, April 9-10.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and R. F. Scott. 1969. A systems approach to refuge management. Trans. N. Am. Wildlife Conf. 34: 103-117.

Giles, R.H. and N. Snyder. 1970. Simulation techniques in wildlife habitat management, p. 637+ in J.A. Bailey, W. Elder, and T.D. McKinney (eds.), Readings in wildlife conservation, The Wildlife Soc, Washington, DC xiv +722pp.

Giles, R.H., Jr. 1970. The ecology of a small forested watershed treated with the insecticide Malathion-S35. Wildlife Monographs 24, 81p.

Giles, R.H., Jr. (Editor). 1971. Wildlife management techniques (third edition). The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C., 633 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1974. Wildlife conservation and wildland operations research, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of the Environment, reprinted from McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 1971, p. 560-567.

Buffington, C. D., R. H. Giles, Jr., and T. A. White, Jr. 1974. WRAP--A system to assist landowners in the management of Tennessee Valley forest and wildland resources. Conf. International Inst. Applied Systems Analysis on the TVA Experience, Baden, Austria, Oct. 28-Nov. 1. 27 p. offset.

Graf, R. L., and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1974. A technique for delineating optimum deer management regions. Proc. Southeastern Assoc. of Game and Fish Commissioners. 28:581-586.

Graf, R. L. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1975. Calculating the effectiveness of fish and wildlife planning regions. Proc. N.E. Fisheries and Wildl. Conf., New Haven, Conn. Feb. 23 - 26.

Rayburn, E. B. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1975. Energy balance as a criterion for acquiring deer management areas. Proc. S.E. Assn. of Game and Fish Commissioners. 29:481-492.

Giles, R. H., Jr., A. Blair Jones, III, and C. W. Smart. 1976. POWER: a computer system for corridor location. Res. div. Bul. 117, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Virginia.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1976. Siting high-voltage powerlines in Virginia. Industrial Vegetation Management. 8(3):14-19.

Giles, R. H., Jr., A. R. Tipton, T. L. Sharik, G. J. Buhyoff, and K. A. Argow. 1976. Computer-aided parkland research optimization. First Conf. on Scientific Res. in the Natl. Parks. 1051-1060 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr., A. B. Jones, III, A. R. Tipton, and T. L. Sharik. 1976. Predicting impacts of proposed facilities in parks. First Conf. on Scientific Res. in the Natl. Parks. 1061-1066 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1977. A watershed planning and management system: design and synthesis. Virginia Water Resource Research Center, Bul. 102. Blacksburg, Va. 133 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1977. Simulating the environmental impacts of a high voltage transmission line. Winter Simulation Conference Proc. Vol. 1, 319-321.

Beattie, K. H., R. H. Giles, Jr. and C. J. Cowles. 1977. Lack of research in wildlife law enforcement. Wildlife Society Bul. 5(4): 170-174.

McDonald, M. V. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1977. An appropriate home for a state environmental information system. 68th Annual Special Libraries Assoc. Conf., (June 5-9) New York Hilton, N.Y. 11 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1978. Wildlife management. W. H. Freeman Co., San Francisco, Calif. 416 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1978. WRAP: A woodland resource analysis procedure for TVA landowners. Norris, Tenn. Unpub. Final Report.

Beattie, K. H., and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1978. Wildlife management: what is it? Colo. Outdoors. 27(2): 8-11.

Cason, T. W., Jr. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1979. A role for subjective probability in interbasin water transfer decisions. Southwestern Regional Meeting, Society for General Systems Research. 7 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1979. Choosing the best line routing. Transmission and Distribution, (March). 35-38.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1979. Dynaplan: System for aiding comprehensive planning in Virginia counties, Dept. Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. Brochure.

Hoar, A. R. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1979. A system for remapping the ranges of threatened and endangered wildlife species. Southeastern Regional Meeting, Society for General Systems Research. 8 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and J. M. Lee, Jr. 1979. When to hunt eastern gray squirrels, p. 583-596, In W. A. Duerr, D. E. Teeguarden (Eds.), Forest resource management: decision-making principles and cases, W. B. Saunders, Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 611 pp. (2nd edition, also 1975).

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1979. Modeling decisions or ecological systems? p. 147-159, In J. Carins, Jr., G. P. Patil, and W. E. Waters (Eds.) Environmental biomonitoring, assessment, prediction, and management-certain case studies and related quantitative issues, International Cooperative Pub. House, Fairland, Md., 438 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1981. Assessing landowner objectives for wildlife, p. 112-129 Wildl. Management on Private Lands Symposium, Milwaukee, Wisc., Wisc. Chapter, The Wildlife Society., Madison, WI, 568 pp.

Koeln, G. T., R. H. Giles, Jr., and A. B. Jones, III. 1981. Virginia geographic information system. Commonwealth Data Base, Dept. of Taxation, Richmond. 187 pp.

Koeln, G. T., R. H. Giles, Jr., and A. B. Jones, III. 1981. State geographic information system and terrestrial ecosystem protection. Trans. Northeastern Sec. Wildl. Soc. 38:108 (Abstr.)

deSteiguer, J. E. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1981. Introduction to computerized land-information systems. J. Forestry 79(11):734-737.

Koeln, G. T. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1982. Value of the geobased information systems to state information and education departments. J. Env. Ed. 13(2):34-39.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1982. A comprehensive plan for managing the nongame animals of Virginia. Unpub. Final Project Report to Virginia Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, Virginia 83 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1982. The crests: a guidance document (2 volumes), Rep. to Penn virginia Resources Corporation, Duffield, Virginia. Vol. 1, 666 pp.; Vol. 2, 277 pp.

Cowles, C. J., and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1982. A linear programming simulator for optimizing spatial distribution and movements of environmental protection personnel. J. Environ. Manage. 15:311-322.

Koeln, G. T. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1983. Value of geobased information systems to state (natural resource agency) information and education departments. Va. Geographer 15:13-21 (reprinted from J. Environ. Ed. 13(2):34-39).

Giles, R. H., Jr. and G. T. Koeln. 1983. Land and cropland primeness: concepts and methods of determination. Env. Manage. 7(2):129-142.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1983. Innovative uses of computers in management in Proc. of the national workshop on computer uses in fish and wildlife programs: a state of the art review, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. 8 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and J. Ziewitz. 1985. A tractor efficiency map: applied energetics for a coal field ownership. National Symposium on Surface Mining, Hydrology, Sedimentology, and Reclamation. University of Kentucky, Lexington. BU 139, p. 261-268.

Sirgy, M. J., and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1985. A general system model of goal formulation in human activity systems. Proc. Soc. for General Systems Research, Los Angeles, California.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1985. Planning the distribution of watering and similar developments for terrestrial wildlife. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13:411-415.

Sirgy, M. J., and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1985. Goal formulation in human activity systems: a general systems model. Pages 635-641 in B. H. Banathy (ed.), Systems inquiring: applications, Vol. 2. Intersystems Publications, Seaside, CA.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1986. A computer program for use with raccoon trappers by wildlife extension specialists. Pages 615-722 in Symp. Forestry Microcomputer Software, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Sirgy, M. J. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1986. Succession as an alternative concept to the product life cycle. Systems Research 3(4):233-242.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1987. A geographic information system design for a wildlife area. Pp. 525-535 in Proc. Internatl. Workshop on Geographic Information System, Beijing '87, 2 vols. 535 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1987. Nine thoughts about geographic information systems, Pp. 8-12 in Wildlife Working Group Newsletter No. 8, June, Lands Directorate, Env. Canada, Ottawa. (Reprinted in 1988). Canadian Cartographic Assoc. Newsletter. 14(1):10-12.

Giles, R. H., Jr., and Tsui Weihung. 1987. A land use guidance system: releasing the power of the geographic information system. Pp. 216-267 in Proc. Internatl. Workshop on Geographic Information System, Beijing '87, 2 vols. 535 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1987. The creation, uses, and demise of a Virginia, USA, Geographic Information System. Pp. 507-524 in Proc. Internatl. Workshop on Geographic Information System, Beijing '87, 2 vols. 535 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1987. Systems ecology, marketing, and quality of life. Pp. 112-128 in A. C. Samli (ed.), Marketing and quality-of-life interface. Quorum Books, New York. xviii + 348 pp.

Sirgy, M. J. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1987. System objectives: Dimensions and determinants. In D. Randell and M. Joseph Sirgy (eds.), System Research and Management. Proceedings of the Southeastern Conference of the Society for General Systems Research, St. Louis.

Sirgy, M. J., R. H. Giles, Jr., and B. Knuth. 1987. A systems model for unifying quality-of-life research. In D. Randell and M. Joseph Sirgy (eds.), System research and management. Proceedings of the Southeastern Conference of the Society for General Systems Research, St. Louis.

Diamond, S. J. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1987. A vegetational history of Virginia's Ridge and Valley province. Quart. Bul. Arch. Soc. of Virginia. 42(4):177-187.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and M. S. Fujita. 1989. Computer applications for wildlife management in national parks and protected areas. International Conf. on Parks and Protected Areas, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 16 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr., and L. A. Nielsen. 1990. A new focus for wildlife resource managers. J. For. 88(3):21-26.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and W. Dean. 1990. A wildlife management plan for the proposed Haysi Reservoir Project area: A Final Report to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. VPI and SU, Blacksburg, VA. 127 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1990. A computer-aided prescription system for wildlife-management and related areas. Proc. Conf. on Applications of Geographic Information Systems, Simulation Models, and Knowledge-Based Systems for Landuse Management, Blacksburg, Va. p. 11-22.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and T. Cason. 1990. Mapping the primeness of land for residential development. Proc. Conf. on Applications of Geographic Information Systems, Simulation Models, and Knowledge-Based Systems for Landuse Management, Blacksburg, Va. p. 393-404.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and D. R. Anderson. 1990. The next coastline of Virginia. Proc. Conf. on Applications of Geographic Information Systems, Simulation Models, and Knowledge-Based Systems for Landuse Management, Blacksburg, Va. p. 471-478.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1990. Not just maps: the role of spatial model results. Proc. Conf. on Applications of Geographic Information Systems, Simulation Models, and Knowledge-Based Systems for Landuse Management, Blacksburg, Va. p. 481-490.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1990. National resource for computers in life science education. Natural Res. Computer Newsletter 5(9):1-2.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and L. A. Nielsen. 1991. The uses of geographic information systems in fisheries in fisheries management: dealing with development in the watershed. Symposium Proceedings AFS, Newport, R.I.

Giles, R. H., R. G. Oderwald, and A. U. Ezealor. 1993. Toward a rationally robust paradigm for agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems 24:21-37.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1994. Yesheng Dongzhiwudeguanli (Management of wild animals and plants). (Textbook, in Chinese) Shanghai Joint Publishing Co. and East China Normal University, International Center for Conservation Biology, Shanghai 200062, P. R. China. 347 pp.

Ezealor, A.U. and R.H. Giles, Jr. 1997. Vertebrate pests of a Sahelian wetland agro-ecosystem:perceptions and attitudes of the indigenes and potential management strategies. International J. of Pest Management 43(2):97-104.

Giles, R.H., Jr. 1998. Natural resource management tomorrow: four currents. Wildl. Society Bulletin 26:51-55.

Giles, R.H., Jr. and Margaret K. Trani. 1999. Key elements of landscape pattern measures. Env. Management 23(4): 477-481.

Trani, M.K. and R.H. Giles, Jr. 1999. An analysis of deforestation: metrics used to describe pattern change. Forest Ecology and Management 114: 459-470.

Giles, R.H., Jr. 2002. Land use, land-use change, and forestry. A special report of the IPCC. Based on a session held in Bonn, Germany, 2-12 1998. edited by Robert T. Watson, Ian R. Noble, Bert Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, David J. Verardo, and David J. Dokken, (2000). Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva (Switzerland), by Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York ix+377pp ill.. Book Review, Quarterly Review of Biology 77(2):224-225. _____

Last revision: October 13, 2004