Rural System's

support for materials within Rural System and

[ HOME | Appendix Contents | Glossary | Abbreviations | Contacts & Links | The Finder ]

This is a list of miscellaneous references including some of those used in several places within the web site. A preliminary alphabetical sorting by authors has been started. References at the end have not been sorted. I suggest skimming the list, then using the "Search" function in the top line of your screen to locate key words and authors. Materials by Giles, his students, and colleagues are also available.

Participants working with Dr. Giles on practical, species-specific management concepts were typically required to synthesize, generalize, and aggregate using their experiences, four years of university education, and existing leads and past reports from all possible sources (before the Internet) to produce some of the units of Species Specific Management. Extensive references are available for each species within the Virginia Wildlife Information System.


Ackoff, R. L. 1962. Scientific method: optimizing applied research decisions. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y. 464 p.

Ackoff, R. L. 1974. Redesigning the future: a systems approach to societal problems. Wiley-Interscience Pub., John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. ix + 260p.

Alston, R. M. and D. M. Freeman. 1975. The natural resources decision-maker as political and economic man: toward a synthesis. J. Env. Manage. 3:167-183.

Anderson, D. R. 1981. A climatological information system for natural resource management: temperature. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. viii + 220 pp.

Armstrong, R.A. 1950. Fetal development of the northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis Miller). Amer. Midland Naturalist 43(3):650-666.

Avery, T. E. and H. E. Burkhart. 1983. Forest measurements (3rd Ed.)_ McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, N.Y. xviii + 329 pp.

Arrow, K. J. 1951. Social choice and individual values. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.


Bailey, R. G. 1978. Description of the ecoregions of the United States. U. S. Forest Service, Ogden, Utah. 79p.

Basile, Joseph V. 1971. Site index for lodgepole pine--a poor indicator of site productivity for herbaceous plants. Res. Note INT-152, 3 p.

Bong Koo Kim 1973. Constraints on timber production to accommodate wildlife habitat. 1973. University of Missouri-Columbia, 128p. Univ microfilm order number 74-18,567 128p. see also SD 427 M8 k54

Boyce, S. G. 1977. Management of eastern hardwood forests for multiple benefits (DYNAST-MB). Res. Paper SE-168. U. S. Forest Service.

Boyce, S. G. 1978. paper SE-193. Theory for new directions in forest management. U.S. Forest Service. Res.

Boyce, S. G. 1980. Management of forests for optimal benefits (DYNAST-OB). Res. paper SE-204. U. S. Forest Service.

Boyce, S. G. 1982. Planning for joint production of multiple forest benefits. Proc. 1981 convention of the Soc. of American Foresters. Wash., DC, 1982.

Bartos, D. L., and 0. A. Jameson. 1974. A dynamic root model. Am. Mid. Nat. 91(2) :499-504.

Buffington, D. C., R. H. Giles, Jr., and T. A. White, Jr. 1974. WRAP -A system to assist landowners in the management of Tennessee Valley forest and wildiand resources. Conf. International Inst. Applied Systems Analysis on The TVA Experience, Baden, Austria, Oct. 28 - Nov. 1. 27pp. offset.

Berwick, S., B.G. Marcot, P. Paquet, and P. Whitney. 2001. Ecosystem-based selection of wildlife species for comparing future landscape alternatives in Columbia River Basin, p.60-63 inR. Filed, R.J. Warren, H. Okarma, P.P. Sievert (editors) Wildlife, land, and people:priorities for the 21st century, The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD.

Best, C. and L. Wayburn. 1995. In diversity is wealth. J. Forestry 93(8): 6-9.

Bengston, N. 1994. The nature of value, and the value of nature. p. 57-62 In "People and Forests: Meeting the challenge of tomorrow", SAF Publication 94-01. Bethesda, MD.

Beer, S. 1967. Management science. Doubleday and Company, Inc. Garden City, N.Y. 192 p.

Bell, L.E. and C. Shick. 1962. The facts about deer browsing. Michigan State Univ., Extension Serv. East Lansing, MI 16p.

Boonpragob, K., T.H. Nash and C.A. Fox (1986) Seasonal effects of wet and dry deposition on gas exchange and chlorophyll degradation of the lichen, Ramalina menziesii (Tayl.). XLVth International Botanical Congress, Berlin, W. Germany, 84 p.

Bradford, G.R., A.L. Page, J.E. Warneke and C.A. Fox (1982) A study of potential lake acidification in the high Sierras of California. First Biannual Conference of Research in California's National Parks, Davis, California.

Bradford, G.R., A.L. Page, Nodvin, S.C. and C.A. Fox (1984) Chemical composition of lakes in the Sierra Nevada of California. Proc. Second Biennial Conference of Research in California's National Parks, Davis, California.

Brooks, R.R. 1987. Serpentine and its vegetation - a multidisciplinary approach. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon.

Braybrooke, D. and C.E. Lindblom. 1970. A strategy of decision. The Free Press, New York, N.Y. 268 p.

Bronshtein, I. N. and K. A. Semendyayev. 1971.A guide-book to mathematics.Verlag Harri Dutsch, Frankfort, Germany. 783 pp.

Brussard, P.E., 1969. The population structure and adult behavior of Erebia epipsodea Butler (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, California. 85 pp.

Brussard, PE., 1971. Field techniques for investigations of population structure in a "ubiquitous" butterfly. J. Lepid. Soc. 25: 119-129.

Brussard, BE, M.C. Hall, and J. Wright, 1982. Structure and affinities of freshwater sea lamprey, Petromyzon mannus, populations. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 3a: 1708-1714.

Brussard, BE, 1982. The role of field stations in the preservation of biological diversity. BioScience 32:327-330.

Brussard, RE, 1984. Geographic patterns and environmental gradients: the central-marginal model in Drosophila, revisited. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. : 25-64.

Brussard, P.E., 1985. Minimum viable populations: How many are too few? Rest. & Mgmt. Notes 3:21-25.

Brussard, P.E., 1985. The current status of conservation biology. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. ??: 9-11.

Brussard, B.E. 1974. Population size and natural selection in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis. Nature 251: 713-715.

Buck, P. 1964. Relationships of the woody vegetation of the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge to geological formations and soil types. Ecology 45(2): 336-344.

Bultena, G. L. and J. C. Hendee. 1972. Foresters' views of interest group positions on forest policy. J.Forestry. p. 337-342.

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 1967. Fort Niobrara Master Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of Interior. 59 p.

Burton and Likens 1975 (salamanders) missing

Burton, I. 1971. The social role of attitude and perception studies, p. 1-6, in Perceptions and attitudes in resources management, W. R. D. Sewell and I. Burton, (Eds.), Resource Paper No.2, Policy Research and Coordination Branch, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Canada. 142 pp.

Bytnerowicz, A., D.M. Olszyk, C.A. Fox, P.J. Dawson, G. Kars, C.L. Morrison, and J. Wolf (1988) Responses of desert annual plants to ozone and water stress in an in situ experiment. JAPCA 38: 1145-1151.


Carmean, W. H. 1971. Soil-site relationships of the upland oaks. USDA Forest Servo NE Forest Exp. Sta. Oak Symp. Proc.: 23-29, illus. Upper Darby, PA.

Cason, T. W., Jr. 1980. Phaedrus: a system for the preliminary environmental evaluation of large physical projects. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. viii + 306 pp.

Churchman, C. W. and R. L. Ackoff. 1954. An approximate measure of value. Journal of Operations Research Society of America.

Clark, A. G. 1985. Characteristics of trappers in Maine, 1976 to 1980. Thesis, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. 156 p.M.S.

Cowles, C. J. 1979. Optimal deployment of wildlife law enforcement agents with analysis of agent productivity. Ph.D. Dissertation, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. 230 pp.

Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E.T.. LaRoe. 1979.. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. USDI, Fish and Hildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS 79/31. 103 pp. .

Cushwa, C. T. and C. W. DuBrock. 1981. Design of fish and wildlife species databases by State and Federal agencies. In: W.T.. Mason, Jr., Ed. Fish and Wildlife Habitat Protection: Environmental Impacts Research for the Decade of 1970-1980. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Hashington, D.C.

Cushwa, C. T. and C. W. DuBrock, D. N. Gladwin, G. R. Gravatt, R. C. Plantico, R.N.Rowse, and L. J. Slaski. 1980. A procedure for describing fish and wildlife for Pennsylvania: evaluation report. (Unpublished) 46 pp + 4 appendices.

Cushwa, C. T. and D. N. Gladwin. 1980. A strategy for developing and managing a statewide fish and wildlife species information system. USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. Draft manuscript.15 pp. .

Cushwa, C. T., D. R. Patton, W.T. Mason, Jr., and L. J. Slaski. . 1978. RUN WILD EAST: a computerized data system for fish and Wildlife resources. Trans. N.E. Fish and Wildlife Conf. 35:60-65.

Chandler, W., M. Boehije, and R. Saathoff. 1970. Computer software for farm management extension. Amer. J. Agr. Econ. 52:71-80.

Clark, P. J. and F. C. Evan. 1954. Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationships in populations.Ecology 35:445-453.

Congressional Budget office. 1976. U.S. food and agricultural policy in the world economy. U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C. 78p.

Cook, E. 1971. The flow of energy in an industrial society. Scientific Amer. 225(3) :135-144.

Costle, D. M. 1978. Remarks before the National Association of Manufacturers, Miami Beach, Florida, Nov. 15, 13p.

Coupland, K. T., R. Y. Zacharuk, and E. A. Paul. 1969. Procedures for study of grassland ecosystems, p. 25-47 in C. M. VanDyne (ed.), The ecosystem concept in natural resource management, Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y. 383p.

Cromarty, W. 1962. Predicting the impact of alternative government programs on the wheat and feed-livestock economics. Michigan State Univ. Ag. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 286. East Lansing.

Cain, Stanley A. 1938. The species-area curve. The American Midland Naturalist 19:573-581.

Cain, Stanley A. and G. M. de Oliveira Castro. 1971. Manual of vegetation analysis. Hafner Publishing Company, New York, New York. 325 pp.

Chambers, Jeanne C. and Ray W. Brown. 1983. Methods for vegetation sampling and analysis on revegetated mined lands. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah. General Technical Report INT-161.

Carde, R.T, W.L. Roelofs, R.G. Harrison, A.T Vawter, BE Brusszard, A. Mutuura, and E. Munroe, 1978. European corn borer: pheromone polymorphism or sibling species? Science .192: 555-556.

Cason, I. W. 1980. Phaedrus: a system for the preliminary environmental evaluation of large scale physical projects. M.S. Thesis. VPI and SU. Blacksburg, Va. 305pp.

Chen, C.W., L. E. Gomez, C.A. Fox, R.A. Goldstein, and A.A. Lucier (1987) A tree growth model with multiple stresses. IUFRO Forest Growth Modelling and Prediction Conference, Minneapolis, MN

Cole, D. W., and D.W. Johnson 1977. Atmospheric sulfate additions and cation leaching in a Douglas-fir ecosystem. Water Resour. Res. 13:313-317.

Crookston, R.K., C.A. Fox, D.S. Hill and D.N. Moss (1978) Agronomic cropping for maximum biomass production. Agronomy Journal, 70: 899-902.

Carter, W.D. 1957. Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge narrative report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of Interior 12 p. (Typewritten)

Crockett, J.J. 1964. Influence of soils and parent materials on grasslands of the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. Ecology 45(2):326-335.


Daubenmire, R. 1976. The use of vegetation in assessing the productivity of forest lands. Botanical Review 42(2):115-143.

DeGarmo, W. Russ. 1941. A study in forest wildlife relationships, MS thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia 160pp.

Diamond, H.L. and P.E. Noonan. 1996. Land use in America, Island Press, Washington, DC 351p.

Drysdale, F. a. and C. E. Calef. 1977. The energetics of the United States of America: an atlas. Brookhaven National. Lab., Upton, N.Y. (BNL50501-R). 439p.


Ehrenfeld, David. 1976. The conservation of non-resources. American Scientist 64:648.

Ehrenfeld, David. 1988. Why put a value on biodiversity? Pages 212-216 In E. 0. Wilson, ed., Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, D. C. 521 pp.

Erickson, D.. E., K. F. Eickhorst, and K. D. Romack. 1971. Computer use to plan increased farm business returns. Univ. Illinois Coop. Ext. Serv. Sp. Pub. 23. Urbana.

Evans, L.S., G.R. Hendry, G.J. Stensland, D.W. Johnson, and A.J. Francis. 1981. Acidic precipitation: Considerations for an air quality standard. Water, Air Soil Pollut. 16:649-509.

Elseewi, A.A., A.L. Page, C.P. Doyle and C.A. Fox. 1983. Boron in residues from coal combustion in the Western USA and its effects on soil, plant, and water quality. Proc. Conference on Municipal, Hazardous, and Coal Waste Management, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.

Ehrlich, P.R., D.E. Breedlove, BE Brussard, and M.A. Sharp, 1972. Weather and the "regulation" of subalpine populations. Ecology 53: 243-247.

El-Amamy, M.M., C.A. Fox, G.R. Bradford, A.L. Page and S.C. Nodvin. 1984. The alkalinity of pristine lakes in the high Sierra mountains. Proc. 77th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, San Francisco, California.


F.A.0. 1976. Impact monitoring of agricultural pesticides. Proc. of a Conference. AGP:1976/M/4. Rome. 108p.

Fiering, M. B. and C. S. Holling. 1974. Management and standards for perturbed ecosystems, working paper No. 23, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, February.

Fromm, C., W. L. Hamilton, D. B. Hamilton. 1974. Federally supported mathematical models: survey and analysis. RANN, NSF, Washington, D.C. 293p.

Ferguson, J. M. 1980. The grasshopper problem: background information and suggestions for solutions. Agricultural Systems laboratory. VPI & SU. Blacksburg, Va. l4pp.

Fisher, L. J., F. L. Scarpace, R. G.Thomsen.1979.MultidateLandsat lake quality monitoring program.Photogram Eng. andRemote Sens.45 ( 4) : 519 -52 7.

Fitzgerald, J.W. and D.W. Johnson.1983. Transformations of sulphate in forested and agricultural lands. pp. 411-426. IN A.I. Moore (ed.), Proceedings, International Sulphur '82 Conference, London, November 14-17, 1982. The British Sulphur Corporation, Ltd.

Folkman, W. S. 1973. Public involvement in the decision making process of natural resource management agencies: with special reference to the Pacific Northwest. Pub. Affairs Paper No.3, Inst. of Governmental Research, Univ. Washington, Seattle. 29 pp.

Forbes, E.E. and J.E. Harney, Jr. 1952. The bulldozer: a tool of wildlife management. Penn. Game Commission, Harrisburg, 136p.

Forrester, J.W. 1971. Counterintuitive behavior of social systems. Tech. Review 73(3):l-l6.

Fox, C.A. (1981) The effect of SO2 and/or NO2 on Mojave Desert vegetation. Research and Development Newsletter 10(2): 5.

Fox, C.A. (1981) Fly ash: its properties and potential. Southern California Edison, Re-search and Development Newsletter 10(3): 5-8.

Fox, C.A. (1980) The effect of air pollution on Western Larch as detected by tree- ring analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University.

Fox, C.A., G.R. Bradford, A.L. Page and A.A. Elseewi (1982) Evaluation of acidity and chemical composition of high elevation lakes in California. Proc. Soil Conservation Society of American Symposium. Acid Rain: A North American Challenge, Burlington, Vermont.

Fox, C.A. and T.H. Nash LII (1979) The effect of air pollution on western larch as detected by tree-ring analysis. Bull. of the Ecological Society of America, 60 (2): 81.

Fox, C.A., W.B. Kincaid, T.H. Nash III, D.L. Young and H.C. Fritts (1985) Tree-ring variation in western larch (Larix occidentalis) exposed to sulfur dioxide emissions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 16: 283-292.

Fox, C.A. (1983) Acid rain: does it pose problems for high Sierra lakes? Southern Califor-nia Edison, Research and Development Newsletter, 12(4): 1-3.

Fox, C.A., A.L. Page, A.A. Elseewi and L.J. Lund (1982) Input of acidity to agricultural soils from rainfall and natural processes. In: D.D. Hemphill, ed. Trace Substances in Environmental Health. Vol XVI. pp 97-104.

Fox, C.A. (1975) Capture of Radiant Energy by Plants. M.S. thesis, University of Minne-sota.

Fox, C.A., W.B. Kincaid and T.H. Nash III (1985) The impact of sulfur dioxide on the forest ecosystem at Trail, British Columbia. Symposium: Effects of Air Pollutants on Forest Ecosystems, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.

Francis, D. L. 1980. A computer-based wind information system for land use planning in Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. vii + 207 pp.

Friedman, George 2004, America's Secret War, Doubleday, New York, NY 354p.

Friedman, T.L. 1999. The Lexus and the olive tree. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York, 394pp.

Frenkel,R.E. 1980. Natural Area Inventory and Assessment: Blacklock Point Oregon, Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, Vol. 42 1980 119-129.

Frenkel,R.E., William H. Moir, and John A. Christy 1986. Vegetation of Torrey Lake Mire, Central Cascade Range, Oregon. Madrono, 33: 24-29

Frenkel, R.E. and Eric F. Heinitz (1987) Composition and Structure of Oregon Ash (Fraxinus latifolia) Forest in William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon. Northwest Science, Vol. 61, 1987, p. 203-212.


Gavitt, J. D. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1972. Simulation studies of quail hunting success associated with ecological succession on planted pine stands. Proc. First Natl. Bobwhite Quail Symp., Oklahoma State, Stillwater. p. 343-349.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1978. Wildlife management. W. H. Freeman Co., Inc.San. Francisco, CA. ix + 416 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and G. T. Koeln. 1983. Land and cropland primeness: concepts and methods of determination. Env. Manage. 7(2):129-142.

Giles, R. H., Jr., and N. Snyder. 1970. Simulation techniques in wildlife habitat management. Paper presented, 23rd Annual Meeting Amer. Soc. of Range Management. Feb. 11, 1970. Reprinted p. 637-654 in Readings in Wildlife Conservation, The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C. Giles, R. H., Jr., and N. Snyder. 1974. Simulation techniques in wildlife habitat management, p. 637-654 in J. A. Bailey, W. Elder, and T. D. McKinney (Eds.). Readings in wildlife conservation. The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C. 722 pp.

Giles, R.H., Jr. 1977. A watershed planning and management system: design and synthesis. Va. Water Resources Res. Center. Bull. 107, Blacksburg, Va. vi + 133 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and N. Snyder. 1970. Simulation techniques in wildlife habitat management, p. 637-654 in J. A. Bailey, W. Elder, and T. D. McKinney (eds.) 1974. Readings in wildlife conservation, The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C. 722 p.

Golley, F. B. 1977. Ecological succession. Benchmark Papers in Ecology, Vol. 5, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pa. 389 p.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and N. Snyder. 1970. Simulation techniques in wildlife habitat management. Paper presented, 23rd Annual Meeting, Amer. Soc. of Range Management. Feb. 11, 1970. Reprinted p. 637-654 in Readings in Wildlife Conservation, The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C.

Giles, R.H., Jr. 1979. Modeling decisions or ecological systems? pages 147-159, in J. Cairns Jr., G.P. Patil, and W.E. Waters (eds.), Environmental boimonitoring, assessment, prediction, and management--certain case studies and related quantitative issues. International Co-operative Pub. House, Fairland, Md. 438 pp.

Golf, F. Glenn, Gary A. Dawson, and John J. Rochow. 1982. Site examination for threatened and endangered plant species. Environmental Management 6(4): 307-3 16.

Green, Roger H. 1979. Sampling design and statistical methods for environmental biologists. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York. 257 pp.

Gentry, A.H. 1986. Endemism in tropical versus temperate plant communities. Pages 153-181In: M.E. Soule, Ed.: Conservation Biology - The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Giles, R. H. and L. A. Nielsen. 1990. A new focus for wildlife resource managers. J. Forestry 88 (3): 21-26.

Giles, R. H. and G. Koeln. 1983. Land and cropland primeness: concepts and methods of determination. Env. Management 7(2): 129-142.

Giles,R.H. Jr. 1962. Timber wildlife coordination concepts for large eastern forests.Trans.N.A.Wildl.Conf.27:402-412.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and N. Snyder. 1970. Simulation techniques in wildlife habitat management, p. 637-654 in J. A. Bailey, W. Elder, and T. D. McKinney (eds.) 1974. Readings in wildlife conservation, The Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C. 722 p.

Giles, R.H. ,Jr.1978.Wi ldlife management.W.H.FreemanCo., San Francisco, Calif.ix+416 pp.

Giles, R. H., Jr. and J. M. Lee, Jr. 1978. When to hunt eastern gray squirrels. p. 583-596, in W. A. Duerr, D. E. Teeguarden, N. B. Christiansen, and S. Guttenberg (Eds.), Forest resource management: decision-making principles and cases. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 611 pp.

Giles, R. E., Jr., A. B. Jones, III, and C. W. Smart. 1976. Power: a computer system for corridor location. Res. Div. Bull. 177. VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. 30 pp.

Golley, F. B. 1977. Ecological succession. Benchmark Papers in Ecology, Vol. 5, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pa. 389 p.

Glading, B.1943.A self-filling watering device.Calif. Fishand Game 29:157-164.

Graf, R. L. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1975. Calculating the effectiveness of fish and wildlife planning regions. Proc. N.E. Fisheries and Wildl. Conf., New Haven, Conn. Feb. 23-26.

Grant, W.E. 1986. Systems analysis and simulation in wildlife and fisheries sciences. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY xii + 338pp.

Green, R.H. 1979. Sampling design and statistical methods for environmental biologists. John Wiley and Sons, New York 257p.

Greene, Sarah E., Robert E. Frenkel, and Charles A. Wellner (1985) Pacific Northwest Natural Area Program: A Successful Partnership, Natural Areas Journal, 5:14-23

Gross, J.E. 1970. PROGRAM ONEPOP: a simulation modeling exercise on the Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge. Col. Coop. Wildl. Res. Progr. Rept. 133 p. (Mimeo)


Halloran, A.F. 1956. Buffalo facts from the Wichita. Refuge Special Report No. 30. 4 p. (Mimeo)

Hammett, A. L. 1993. Non-timber forest products: profits and panacea? Focus on Jaributi, Forest Research and Survey Centre, Occasional Paper 2/93, Kathmandu, Nepal 3pp.

Halverson, H. G. and J. L. Smith. 1979. Solar radiation as a forest management tool: a primer of principles and application. Gen. Tech. Report PSW-33, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Station, Berkeley, Ca. 13 pp.

Hamill, J. F. 1976. A computer-based:methodology for estimating potential wildlife productivity for large areas. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. x + 94 pp.

Hamilton,W. T.III and K .E.F. Watt. 1970.Refuging.Ann.Rev.Ecology and Systematics 1:263-286.

Hamilton, D. A., and L. D. Vangilder. 1992. Furbearer populations, animal rights, and wild turkey production. Missouri Department of Conservation, Wildlife Resources Section, Columbia.

Harris, R.R., C.A. Fox, and R.J. Risser (1987) Lmpacts of hydroelectric development on riparian vegetation in the Sierra Nevada region, California, USA. Environmental Man-agement 11: 519-527.

Harrison, R.B. and D. W. Johnson (1987) Comments on "use of the terms base cation and base saturation should be discouraged." Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:1090-91.

Hart, R. H. 1978. Stocking rate theory and its application to grazing on rangelands. Proceedings of the First International Rangeland Congress. pp. 547-550.

Hendee, J. C., Z. G. Smith, and R. M. Lake. 1979. Publib involvement in resource decisions: RARE I and II and their implications for the future. p. 217-232. Proc. Symp. ,Multiple-Use Management of Forest Resources Clemson Univ., Clemson, S.C.

Hirsch, A., W. B. Krohn, D. L. Schweitzer, and C. H. Thomas. 1979. Trends and needs in Federal inventories of wildlife habitat. Trans. N. Amer. Wildl. und Nat. Resour. Conf. 44:340-359.

Hoekstra, T. H. and C. T. Cushwa. 1979. Compilation of avian information in computerized data storage and retrieval systems of the northcentral and northeastern United States. Pages 238-244. In: Management of Northcentral and Northeastern Forests for Nongame Birds Workshop Proceedings. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. GTR-NC-51.

Hoekstra, T. H., D. L. Schweitzer, C. T. Cushwa, S. H. Anderson, and R. B. Barnes. 1979. PreliIwinary evaluation of a national wildlife and fish data base. Trans. N. Amer. Wildl. and Nat.Resour. Conf. 44:380-391.

Hurley, J. F. and E. S. Asrow. 1980. Western Sierra wildlife/habitat relationships program. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Tahoe National Forest. 155 pp.

Hof, J. 1993. Coactive forest management. Academic Press, New York, NY, 189 pp.

Holling, C.S. 1966. The functional response of invertebrate predators to prey density. Memoirs Entomol. Soc. Canada 48:1-86.

Hamner, L. N. 1975. WRAP: A multiple resource model for allocation of wildland resources. Tech. Note B12, Div. Forestry, Fisheries, and Wildlife Development, TVA, Norris, Tenn. 7p.

Heichel, C. H. 1976. Agricultural production and energy resources. Amer. Scientist 64--(l):64-72.

Heidhues, T., and C. R. Henderson. 1961. Teaching selection principles with herd records generated by an electronic computer. J. Animal Sci. 20(3):659-664. (Also published as abstract 1960, J. Animal Sci. 19(4):1220-1221.)

Hof, J. and M. Bevers. 1998. Spatial optimization for managed ecosystems, Columbia Univ., Press, New York, NY. 258p.

Holling, C. S. (ed.) 1978. Adaptive environmental assessment and management. International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, John-Wiley and Sons, New York, xviii + 377p.

Humphrey, R. R. and R. J. Shaw. 1957.Paved drainage basins as a source of water for livestock or game. J.Range Mgmt.10:59-62.

Hunter, M. L., Jr. 1996. Fundamentals of conservation biology, Blackwell Science


Ike, A. F. 1971. Species-site relationships for southern Appalachian hardwoods. USDA Forest Serv., State and Private Forestry, Atlanta, Ga. Symp. South. Appalachian Hardwoods Proc. p. 23-37.


Jeffers, J. N. R.1966.Nursery planning and production: a preview of a mathematical model of a complex management problem, in Mathematical models in forest management, Forestry Commission. Forest Record No. 59, Her Majesty's Stationery Off., London, England.47 pp.

Jeffers, J. N. R. 1978. An introduction to systems analysis: with ecological applications. Univ. Park Press, Baltimore, MD 198 pp

Jenkins, D.H. and I.H. Bartlett. 1959. Michigan whitetails, Mich. Dept. Conservation, Lansing, MI 80p.

Jennrick, R. I. and F. B. Turner. 1969. Measurement of non-circular home range. J. Theoretical Biol. 22:227-237.

Jenson, C. R. and C. T. Thorestenson. 1972. Issues in outdoor recreation. Burgees Pub. Co., Minneapolis, MN.

Jimerson, T. M. 1989. Snag densities in old-growth stands on the Gasquet Ranger District, Six Rivers National Forest, California. USDA For.Serv. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta. PSW-196, Berkeley,CA, 12 pp.

Johnson, E. A. and G. I. Fryer. 1989. Population dynamics in lodgepole pine-Englemann spruce forests. Ecol. 70(5) :1335-1345.

Johnson, M. K., L. G. Davis, K. F. Riobeck, and H. A. Pearson. 1987. Crosscountry track stations for indexing wildlife populations. p 138-143, in Ecological, physical, and socioeconomic relationships within southern National Forests, Proc. of the Southern Evaluation Proj. Workshop, Long Beach, MS. Gen. Tech. Rpt. SO-68, USDA, USFS, Southern For. Exp. Sta.

Jones, A. B., III. Power: a computer information system for land use decisions.M.S. Thesis, VPI&SU, Blacksburg, VA 194 pp.

Jones, J. G., J. F. C. Hyde, III, and M. L. Meacham. 1986. Four analytical approaches for integrating land management and transportation planning on forest lands. USDA For. Service Intermountain For. and Range Exp.Sta.

Johnson, D.W. and D.E. Todd. 1987. Nutrient export by leaching and whole-tree harvesting in a loblolly pine and mixed oak forest. Plant Soil 102:99-109.

Johnson, D.W., J.M. Kelly, W.T. Swank, D.W. Cole, H. Van Migrate, J. W. Hornbeck, R.S. Pierce, and D. Van Lear. The effects of leaching and whole-tree harvesting on cation budgets of several forests. J. Environ. Qual. 17:418-424.

Johnson, D.W., and D.E. Todd. Nitrogen fertilization of young yellow-poplar and loblolly pine plantations at differing frequencies. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.

Johnson, D.W., N.T. Edwards, and D.E. Todd. 1980. Nitrogen mineralization, immobilization, and nitrification following urea fertilization of a forest soil under field and laboratory conditions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44:610-616.

Johnson, D.W., G.S. Henderson, and D.E. Todd. 1981. Evidence of modern sulfate accumulation in a East Tennessee forested Ultisol. Soil Sci. 132:422-426.

Johnson, D.W.1981. The natural acidity of some unpolluted waters in southeastern Alaska and potential impacts of acid rain. Water, Air Soil Pollut. 16:243-252.

Johnson, D.W., and G.S. Henderson. Nutrient cycling. IN D.W. Johnson and R.I. Van Hook (eds.) Analysis of Forested Watershed Processes. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Johnson, D.W., and S.E. Lindberg. Acidic deposition on Walker Branch Watershed. IN Acid Precipitation, Advances in Environmental Science. Vol. 5. Case Studies on Acid Precipitation. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Johnson, D.W., D.W. Cole, and S.P. Gessel. 1975. Processes of nutrient transfer in a tropical rain forest. Biotropica 7(3) :208-215.

Johnson, D.W., D.W. Cole, and S.P. Gessel .1979. Acid precipitation and soil sulfate absorption properties in a tropical and temperate forest soil. Biotropica 11:38-42.

Johnson, D.W., D.W. Breuer, and D.W. Cole .1979. The influence of anion mobility on soil ionic retention following municipal wastewater application. J. Environ. Qual. 8:246-250.

Johnson, D.W., and G.S. Henderson .1979. Sulfate absorption and sulfur fractions in a highly-weathered soil under a mixed deciduous forest. Soil Sci. 128:34-40.

Johnson, D.W., and N.T. Edwards. 1979. Effects of stem girdling on biogeochemical cycles in a mixed deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee. II. Soil nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates. Oecologia 40:259-271.

Johnson, D.W. and D.D. Richter. Effect of atmospheric deposition on forest nutrient cycles. pp. 311-319. Proceedings, 1983 Annual Meeting, Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industries, March 1983, Atlanta, GA.

Johnson, D.W. and D.D. Richter (1984) combined effects of acid deposition and harvesting on forest mineral cycles. pp. 36-46. IN C.S. Cronan, L. Breece, and S. Hasbrouck (eds.), Forest Responses to Acidic Deposition, University of Maine, Orono, ME. Reprinted by permission in Tappi 1984 Research and Development Conference, Proceedings. pp. 149-156.

Johnson, D.W. 1981. Effects of precipitation of elemental transport from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. pp. 539-545. IN R.A. Fazzolare and C.B. Smith (eds.), Beyond the Energy Crisis: Opportunity and Challenge. Pergamon Press, New York.

Johnson, D.W. 1981. Acid rain and forest productivity. pp. 73-89. IN Mlinsek (ed.). XVII LUFRO World Congress, Division I. Japanese IUFRO Congress Committee, Ibaraki, Japan.

Johnson, D.W. A discussion of changes in soil acidity due to natural processes and acid deposition. pp. 333-346. IN T.C. Hutchinson and K. Meema (eds.). Effects of Acidic Deposition on Forests, Wetlands, and Agricultural Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, Toronto.

Johnson, D.W., G.S. Henderson, D.D. Huff, S.E. Lindberg, D.D. Richter, D.S. Shriner, and J. Turner. 1982. Cycling of organic and inorganic sulphur in a chestnut oak forest. Oecologia 54:141-148.

Johnson, D.W., D.C. West, D.E. Todd, and L.K. Mann (1982) Effects of sawlog vs whole-tree harvesting on the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium budgets of an upland mixed oak forest. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46:1304-1309.

Johnson, D.W., D.W. Cole (1982) Nutrient cycling in forests of the Pacific Northwest. pp.186-232. In R.L. Edmonds (ed.), Analysis of Coniferous Forest Ecosystems in the Western United States. Hutchinson Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.

Johnson, D.W., G.S. Henderson, and W. F. Harris. 1987. Changes in aboveground biomass and nutrient content on Walker Branch Watershed from 1967 to 1983. pp. 487-496. IN R.L. Hay. F.W. Woods, and H.DeSelm (eds.), Sixth Central Hardwood forest conference, University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Johnson, D.W., H. Van Migrate, D.W. Cole, and D.D. Richter .1984. The effects of acid precipitation and natural processes on cation leaching from four diverse forest soils. pp. 247-264. IN E.L. Stone (ed.), Forest Soils and Treatment Impacts, Proceedings of the sixth North American Forest Soils Conference, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

Johnson, D.W., D.D. Richter, G.M. Lovett, and S.E. Lindberg.1985.The effects of atmospheric deposition on potassium, calcium, and magnesium cycling in two deciduous forests. Can. J. For. Re. 15:773-782.

Johnson, D.W., 1.S. Nilsson, J.O. Reuss, H.M. Seip, and R.S. Turner (1985) Predicting soil and water acidification: Proceedings of a Workshop. ORNL'TM-9528. Oak Ridge, National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Johnson, D.W. (1983) The effects of harvesting intensity on nutrient depletion in forests. pp. 157-166. IN R. Ballard and S.P. Gessel (eds.), IUFRO Symposium on Forest Site and Continuous Productivity. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-163, Portland, Oregon.

Johnson, D.W., J.M. Kelly, W.T. Swank, D.W. Cole, J.W. Hornbeck, R.S. Pierce and D. Van Lear (1985) A comparative evaluation of the effects of acid deposition, natural acid production, and harvesting on cation removal from forests. Final report to EPA. ORNLII'M-9706. Oak Ridge national Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Johnson, D.W., D.W. Cole, J.M. Kelly, J.W. Webb, D.D. Richter, and H. Van Miegroet. 1985. Effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status. Final report to EPRI. ORNL/TM-9528. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Johnson, D.W., D.W. Cole, H. Van Migrate, and F.W. Horng 1986. Factors affecting anion movement and retention in four forest soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:776-783.

Johnson, D.W., D.D. Richter, H. Van Migrate, D.W. Cole, and J.M. Kelly 1986. Sulfur cycling in five forest ecosystems. Water, Air Soil Pollut. 30:965-979.

Johnson, D.W. 1984. Sulfur cycling in forests. Biogeochemistry 1:29-44.

Johnson, D.W., and D.E. Todd. 1983. Some relationships among aluminum, carbon, and sulfate in a variety of forest soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47:792-800.

Johnson, D.W., H. Van Migroet, D.W. Cole, and D.D. Richter. 1983. Contributions of acid deposition and natural processes to cation leaching from forest soils: A review. J. Air Pollut. Cont. Assoc. 33:1036-1041.

Johnson, D.W., G. S. Henderson, and D.E. Todd. Changes in Nutrient distribution in forests and soils of Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee, over an eleven-year period. Blogeochemistry 5:275-294.

Johnson, D.W. and D.W. Cole. 1977. Anion mobility in soils: Relevance to nutrient transport from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. Ecological Research Series, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR. EPA-600/3-77-068. 27 p. (same title, 1980 Environment International 3:79-90.

Johnson, D.W. 1978. Book review of "Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem" by. Likens et at. Quarterly review of Biology 53(2):185.

Johnson, D.W., D.W. Cole, F.W. Horng, H. Van Miegroet, and D.E. Todd. 1981 Chemical characteristics of two forested ultisols and two forested inceptisols relevant to anion production and mobility. ORNFJTM-7646, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Johnson, D.W., D.W. Cole, S.P. Gessel, M.J. Singer, and R.V. Minden. 1977. Carbonic acid leaching in a tropical, temperate, subalpine, and northern forest soil. Arctic Alpine Res. 9:329-343.

Johnson, D.W. 1979. Some nitrogen fractions in two forest soils and their changes in response to urea fertilization. Northwest Sci.53:22-32.

Johnson, D.W., J. Turner, and J. M. Kelly. 1982. The effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status. Water Resour. Res. 18:449-461.

Jansen, H. C. 1976. Range RAM - A long-term planning method for managing grazing lands. PSW-12Q/ Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Station, USDA - Forest Service, Berkeley, Calif. 18p.


Kendeigh, S.C. 1961. Animal ecology, Prentice -Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 468p.

Kelly, J. M., and D.W. Johnson (1982) Sulfur and Nitrogen uptake by loblolly pine seedlings an influenced by soil nitrogen and sulfur additions. For. Sci. 28:725-7331.

Kellogg, WW and R. Schware. 1981. Climate change and society: consequences of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Kerr, R. and K. Brown. 1978. Data requirements for terrestrial wildlife habitat inventory. Pages 173-178. In: A. Marmelstein, Ed. ,Classification, Inventory, and Analysis of Fish and Wildlife Habitat: Proceedings of a National Symposium, USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS-78/76. 604 pp.

Kingery, H. E. and H. D. Graul. 1978. Colorado bird distribution LATIL0NG study. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, CO.,58 pp + 2 appendices.

Knight, S. and A. Purcell. 1980. Fish and wildlife-habitat relationships data base. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 214 pp + 4 appendices.

Kuchler, A. W 1964. Manual to accompany the map - potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. American Geographical Society Special Publication No. 36, New York, New York. 155 pp.

Kroll, G. 1982. Computer aids for reclaiming eastern surface mines as rangelands. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 272 pp.

Kruckeberg, A.R. and D. Rabinowitz. 1985. Biological aspects of endemism in higher plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16:447-479.


Lackey, R. T, R. L. Blair, D.T. Tingey, and PA. Beedlow. 1989. Research programs of the terrestrial branch, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis. March 6, 1989. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, Oregon.

Langer, J. 1969. Theories of development. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., New York. xi + 191 pp.

Langlois, D. 1978. Colorado reptile and amphibian distribution LATILONG Study. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, CO.

Lawrence, G. E. 1976. A computer-based insolation mapping algorithm for large areas. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. viii + 129 pp.

Lee, J. M., Jr. 1972. Citizen participation in wildlife management decision making: the squirrel hunting season as an example. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. xi + 164 pp.

Lee, S. M. and L. J. Moore. 1975. Introduction to decision science. Petrocelli/Charter, New York. xii + 589 pp.

Leenhout, W. P. 1976. Forecasting policy and human population effects on the Michigan deer resource. M.S. Thesis, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. ix + 153 pp.

Lindblom, C. E. and D. Braybrooke. 1963. A strategy for decision. Free Press, New York.

Lloyd, F. T. and W. L. Hafley. 1977. Precision and the probability of misclassification in site index estimation. For. Science 23(4):493-499.

Lodbell, C. H. 1972. MAST: a budget allocation system for wildlife management. Ph.D. Diss. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. vi + 227 pp.

Leopold, A. 1949. A Sand County almanac and sketches here and there. Oxford Univ. Press. N.Y. 226 pp.

Lomborg, Bjorn. 2001. The skeptical environmentalist. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, NY, 515p.

Lovejoy, TE. 1989. Deforestation and extinction of species. Pages 91-98 In: D.B. Botkin, M.E Caswell, J.E. Estes, and A.A. Orio, Eds.: Changing the Global Environment - Perspectives on Human Involvement. Academic Press, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts.

Lindberg, S.E., G.M. Lovett, D.D. Richter, and D.W. Johnson. Atmospheric deposition and canopy interactions of major ions in a forest. Science 231:141-145.

Lindblom, C.E. 1959. The science of "muddling through." Pub. Admin. Rev. 24(2):79-88.

Lovett, G.M., S.E. Lindberg, D.D. Richter and D.W. Johnson 1986. The effects of acid deposition on cation leaching from a deciduous forest canopy. Can. J. For. Res. 15:1055-1060.

Lund, L.J., S.C. Nodvin, S.L. Page and C.A. Fox. 1985. The chemistry of surface waters in the Sierra Nevada watershed. Proc. International Symposium on Acid Precipitation, Muskoka '85 Conference, Federal and Provincial Governments of Canada.

Levin, Donald A. 1979. The nature of plant species. Science 204:381-384.

Lawrence, G. E. Jr. 1976. A computer-based insolation mapping algorithm for large areas. M.S. Thesis, Va. Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. v + 95 p.

LaDue, E. L. 1978. Impact of alternative remote access computer systems on extension programs. Amer. J. Agr. Econ. 60:135-138.

Levis, A. H., E. R. Ducot, K. H. Sidenbiad, and I. S. Levis. 1977. ACRIMOD: A dynamic simulation model of the U. S. food production system. NSr/PRA-7522720/1/8, ~Po1icy Analysis Program, Food and Agric., NSF, Washington, D.C.


Macon, J.W., H.H. Webster, and R.L. Hilliker. 1970. For more effective links between resource management and research. Jour. For. 68(2) :84-86.

McCracken, G.E and BE Brussard, 1980. The population biology of the white-lipped land snail, Triodopsis albolabris: genetic variability. Evolution 34: 92-104.

McCracken, G.E and B.E. Brussard, 1980. Self-fertilization in the white-lipped land snail, Triodopsis albolabris. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 14: 429434.

McTague, J. P. and D. R. Patton. 1989. Stand density index and its application in describing wildlife habitat. Wildl. Soc. Bul. 17(1):5862.

Mann, L.K., D.W. Johnson, D.C. West, D.W. Cole, J.W. Hornbeck, C.W. Martin, H. Riekerk, C.T. Smith, W.T. Swank, L.M. Tritton, and D.H. Van Lear. Effects of Whole-tree nutrient capital and regrowth. Forest Science 34:4123-428.

Messerschmidt, D. A. and A. L Hammett. 1993. Indigenous knowledge of alternative forest resources extraction and marketing: significance for community and farm forestry planning and management, p. 19-30 In "From farmers' fields to data field ... and back: a synthesis of participatory approaches to resource information systems", Workshop Proceeding, Inst. of Agric. and Animal Sci., Tribhuvan University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. pp. 19-30.

Mason, W. T., Jr., C. T. Cushwa, L. J. Slaski, and D. N. Gladwin. 1979. A procedure for describing fish and v/ildlife: coding instructions for Pennsylvania. USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. FHS/OBS-79/19. 21 pp.

Moyseenko, H. P., J. L. Woodall, and S. A Woodall. 1978. The balanced ecogeographical information system: a vehicle for data collection, systematization, and dissemination. Pages 569-592. In: A. Marrnelstein, Ed. Classification, Inventory, and Analysis of Fish and Wildlife Habitat: Proceedings of a National Symposium. USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS-78/76. 604 pp.

Miller, T. 1952. Deer bonanza: restoration procedures applicable to deer and turkey in Texas. Texas Game and Fish Mag. (March) 7p.

Mishan, E. J. 1976. Cost-benefit analysis new and expanded edition. Praeger Publishers, New York, N.Y. 454pp.

Mullin, M. 1994. Upland gamebird preserves: The opportunity for an alternative enterprise. Forest Farmer 53 (3): 9-11, 24.

McDonald, H. V. 1977. A computer information system for Virginia counties. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. viii + 99p.

McMinn, James W. 1991. Biological diversity research: an analysis. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, North Carolina. General Technical Report SE-7 1.

Mueller-Dombois, Dieter and Heinz Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley and Sons. New York, New York. 547 pp.


Nagy, J. and C. E. Calef. 1979. ESUSA: U.S. endangered species distribution file. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. 41 pp.

Nationa1 Assocation for State Information. Systems. 1979. Information systems technology in state government. 1978-1979 NASIS report, Lexington, KY. 36 pp + appendices.

National Coastal Ecosystems Team. 1981. Environmental requirements of selected coastal finfish and shellfish of the Mississippi Sound and vicinity: Draft coding instructions manual. USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological services, Slidell, LA. 32 pp.

Nash, T.H., III, T.J. Moser, C.C. Bertke, S.O. Link, L.L. Sigal, S.L. White and C.A. Fox (1982) Photosynthetic patterns of Sonoran Desert lichens. I. Environmental considerations and field measurements. Flora, 172: 335-345.

Nash, III, T.H., T.J. Moser, G.T. Nebeker, L. Sigal and C.A. Fox (1978) Photosynthetic patterns of two sonoran desert lichens. Proc. 2nd International Congress of Ecology, Jerusalem, p. 259.

Newby, F.E. 1963. Big gme harvest. Montana Wildlife, August 8p.

Nodvin, S.C., L.J. Lund and C.A. Fox (1986) Winter alkalinity generation in a high eleva-tion Sierra Nevada lake. Proc. 50th Annual Meeting American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc., Kingston, Rhode Island.

Nodvin, S.C., L.J. Lund, W.T. Frankenberger and C.A. Fox. 1984. Chemical characteriza-tion of Eastern Brook Lake: A high elevation lake in the Sierra Nevada. Proc 47th Annual Meeting American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.


Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. 3rd ed., W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA xiv + 574pp.

Odum, H. T. 1971. Environment, power, and society. Wiley-Interscience, New York. ix + 331 pp.

Odum, E. P. and E. C. Odum. 1976. Energy basis for man and nature. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. x + 297 p.

Odum, H.T. 1983. Systems ecology, an introduction. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY 644pp.

Olson, R.J., D.W. Johnson and D.S. Shriner. 1982. Regional assessment of potential sensitivity of soils in the eastern United States to acid precipitation. ORNIJTM-8374. Oak Ridge national Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 50 p.

Olszyk, D.M., A. Bytnerowicz and C.A. Fox (1987) Sulfur dioxide effects on plants exhibit-ing Crassulacean acid metabolism. Journal of Environmental Pollution 43 (1) 47-62.

O'Brien, Renee and Dwane D. Van Hooser. 1983. Understory vegetation inventory: an efficient procedure. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Intennountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah. Research Paper INT-323.

Odum, H. T. 1971. Environment, power, and society. Wiley-Interscience, New York. ix + 331 pp.

Odum, H. T., and E. C. Odum. 1976. Energy basis for man and nature. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y. 297p.

Omernick, S. H. 1977. Nonpoint source--stream nutrient level relationships: a nationwide study. EPA-600/3-77-105, Corvallis, Oregon. 150p.

O'Neill, R. V. 1975. Management of large-scale environmental modeling projects, p. 251-282 in C. S. Russell (ed.), Ecological modeling in a resource management framework. Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. 394p.

O'Neill, R. V. 1975. Modeling in the eastern deciduous forest biome, p. 49-72 in B. C. Patten (ed.), Systems analysis and simulation in ecol6gy, Academic Press, N. Y., 601p.

Overton, W.S. and L.M. Hunt. 1974. A view of current forest policy, with questions regarding the state of forests and criteria of management. Trans. N. Amer. and Nat. Resource Conf. 39: 334-353.


Peters, R.L. 1988. The effect of global climate change on natural communities. Pages 450461 In:E.O. Wilson, Ed.: Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Peters, R.L. and J.D.S. Darling. 1985. The greenhouse effect and nature reserves. Bioscience. 35(11):707-717.

Petersen, E.T. 1953. The history of wild life conservation in Michigan. Phd Diss, Univ. Michigan (microfilm)

Pimentel, D., L. E. Hurd, A. C. B-ellotti, M. J. Forster, I. N. Oka, 0.D. Shales, R. J. Whitman. 1973. Food production and the energy crisis. Science 182(4111) :443-449.

Poole,R.W. 1974. An introduction to quantitati ve ecology.McGraw-Hill, New York. xii+532pp.

Portney. P.R. and J.P. Weyant eds. 1999. Discounting and Intergenerational equity, RRF Press, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC 186 p.

Preston, P. J. 1997. Community involvement and the determination of use of surface mined land: Eagan Mountain Case Study, MS in Planning, Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville, 118 p.

Preston, P.J. 1997. Community involvement and the determination of use of surface mined land: Eagan Mountain Case Study, MS in Planning, Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville, 118 p.

Price, L.W 1978. Mountains of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.: A study in contrasts. Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol.10, No.2, 465478.


Quade, E.S. 1966. Systems analysis techniques for planning-programming-budgeting. Pages 1-31. In Executive orientation in planning, programming, and budgeting workshop. U.S. Bur. Budget and U.S. Civil Serv. Comm., Washington, D.C.


Reeves, J.H. Jr. 1960. The history and development of wildlife conservation in Virginia: a critical review. PhD Diss, Virginia Poly, Inst. Blacksburg, Va

Reuss, J.O. and D.W. Johnson. 1985. Effect of soil processes on the acidification of water by acid deposition. J. Environ. Qual. 14-26-31.

Richter, D.D., D.W. Johnson, C.B. Craft, J.M. Kelly, D.E. Todd, and J.W. Webb1983 Effects of acid precipitation on soil acidity and base-cation status of infertile soils in eastern Tennessee. Proceedings for Second National Symposium on Acid Rain, Pittsburgh, PA,

Richter, D.D. and D.W. Johnson. Determination of inorganic municipal sewage sludge-cake on nitrogen and phosphorus distributions in a pine plantation. pp. 532-536. IN Fifth Annual Madison Conference of Applied Research an Practice on Municipal and Industrial Waste, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Richter, D.D., D.W. Johnson, and D.E. Todd (1983) Atmospheric sulfur deposition, neutralization, and leaching in two deciduous forest ecosystems. J. Environ. Qual. 12:263-270.

Richter, D.D., and D.W. Johnson.1983. Determination of inorganic sulfate in foliage with barium chloranilate. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47:522-524.

Ripley, T. H. 1980. Planning wildlife management investigations and projects: p. 1-6 in S. D. Schemnitz (Ed.), Wildlife management techniques manual. The Wildlife. Society, Washington, D.C. 686 pp.

Reuss, J.O. 1984. Soil mediated effects of atmospherically-deposited sulphur and nitrogen. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 305:383-392.

Ripley, T. H. and C. W. Moody. 1977. \WRAP - Woodland resource allocation procedure. Forest Farmer 36(4):6-8.


Saunders, E. F. 1977. WATFLOW: A computer system to aid in reclaiming watersheds affected by surface mines. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. xii + 296p.

Scribner, R. A. and R. A. Chalk (Eds.). 1977. Adapting science to social needs: knowledge, institutions, people into action. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Science, Washington, D.C. 312p.

Spofford, W. 0., Jr. 1975. Ecological modeling in a resource management framework: an introduction, p. 13-48 in C. S. Russell (ed.), Ecological modeling in a resource management framework. Resources for the Future Inc., Washington, D.C. xi + 394p.

Schemnitz, Sanford D. 1980. Wildlife management techniques manual. The Wildlife Society, Washington, D. C. 686 pp.

Senge, P, C.O. Scharmer, J. Jaworski, and B.S. Flowers. 2004. Presence: human purpose and the field of the future, The Society for Organizational Learning, Massachuestts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 289p.

Soul&#eacute;, M. E. 1991. Land use planning and wildlife maintenance: guidelines for conserving wildlife in an urban landscape. Journal of the American Planning Association 57:313-323.

Stankey, G. H. 1972. The use of content analysis in resource decision making. J. Forestry 70(3):148-151.

Steinhoff, H. W. 1978. Big game values. p. 271-282, in J. L. Schmidt and D. L. Gilbert, Eds., Big Game of North America, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pa. xv + 494 pp.

Stuby, R. G., E. H. Carpenter, and L. M. Arthur. 1979. Public attitudes toward coyote control. USDA Economics, Statistics and Cooperatives Service, ESCS-54, Washington, D.C.

Starr, C. 1969. Social benefit vs. technological risk. Science 165:1232-1238.

Starr, C. and R. Rudman. 1973. Parameters of technological growth. Science 182:358-364.

Steele, J.L., Jr. 1969. An investigation of the Comanche County deer herd. Pittman-Robertson Project Completion Report W-87-R-3. 20 p.

Stephens, L.M. 197la. Refuge management modeling (Wichita Mountains). Colo. Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit Quarterly Report 24(3):ll-21. (Mimeo)

Stephens, L.M. 197lb Refuge management modeling (Wichita Mountains).Colo. Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit Quarterly Report 24(4):ll-l9. (Mimeo)

Stednick, J.O. and D.W. Johnson.1982. Natural acidity of waters in podzolaized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation. pp. 299-302. IN Proceedings, International symposium of Hydrometeorology. American Water Resources Association, Denver, CO.

Salwasser, H., G. Contreras, M. Dombeck, and K. Silorits. 1989. A marketing approach to fish and wildlife program management. Tran. N. Am. Wildlife and Nat. Res. Conf. 54: 261-270.

Sassone, P. L. and W. A. Schaffer. 1978. Cost-benefit analysis: a handbook. Academic Press, N.Y. l82 p.

Settle, R. F. and L. L. Anderson. 1977. Benefit-cost analysis: a practical guide. Lexington Books, Mass. l4O p.

Shahidullah, S.M. 1991. Capacity building in science and technology in the third world: problems, issues, and strategies. Westview Press, Boulder, CO 258p.

Singh, B.R., and D.W. Johnson. 1986. Sulfate content and adsorption in soils of two forest watersheds in southern norway. Water, Air Soil Pollut. 31:847-856.

Schonewald-Cox, s. Chambers, B. MacBryde, and W Thomas.(editors) 1983? Genetics and conservation: a reference forManaging wild animal and plant populations (review, Amer Sci. 72:630)

Smith, C. L. 1994. Fish watching: an outdoor guide to freshwater fishes. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 216 pp.

Slough, B.G. and R.M.F.S. Sadlier 1977. A land capability classification system for beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl). Canadian J. Joology 55:1324-1335

Schneider, S.H. 1989. The greenhouse effect: Science and policy. Science 243: 771-781.

Stage, A. R. 1963. A mathematical approach to polymorphic site index curves for ground fir. For. Sci. 9:167-180.

Stage, A. R. 1969. Computing procedure for grand fir site evaluation and productivity estimation. USDA For. Servo Res. Lab INT-98, Ogden, Utah. 6 p.

Stage, A. R. 1976. An expression for the effect of aspect slope, and habitat type on tree growth. For. Sci. 22:457-460.

Stuck, R. D. 1976. Increasing the efficiency of multiple-use inventory procedures. Ph.D. Diss., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va. 125 pp.


Teaford, J. W. 1977. MAST and HABAN: a forest wildlife decision aid. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va. 155 pp.

Teeguarden, D. E. 1982. Multiple services p. 276-290 In Duerr, W. A., and D. E. Teeguarden, N. B. Christiansen, and S. Guttenberg eds., Forest resource management OSU Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis, Oregon, 612 pp.

Temple, S.A., E.G. Bolen, M.E. Soule, RE Brussard, H. Salwasser, and J.G. Teer, 1988. What's so new about conservation biology? Trans. N.A. Wildl. And Nat. Res. Conf., 53:609-612.).

Thompson, F.R. III, J. R. Probst, and M.G. Raphael. 1993. Silvicultural options for neotropical migratory birds In D. Finch, Ed. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds. U.S.D.A. Forest Services Gen. Tech. Rpt. RM-229, Ft. Collins, CO. 422 p.

Todd, D.E. 1984. Effects of acid irrigation C02 evolution, extractable nitrogen, phosphorus and aluminum in a deciduous forest soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:664-666.

Turner, J., D.W. Johnson, and M.J. Lambert .1980. Sulphur cycling in a Douglas-fir forest and its modification by nitrogen applications. Oecologia Plantarum 15:27-35.

Turner, R.S., D.W. Johnson, J.W. Elwood, W. Van Winkle, R.B. Clapp, and J.O. Reuaa (1986) Factors affecting response of surface waters to acidic deposition. ORNIJTM-9787. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.


United States Department of Agriculture. 1972. The nation's range resources. Forest Resources Report No. 19. U.S. Government Printing Office Stock number 0101-0237. l47pp.

United States Department of Agriculture. 1977. Review of forage losses caused by rangeland grasshoppers. Agricultural Research Service Miscel-laneous Publication No. 1348. U.S.

U.S.D.A. 1968. Computer use in farm management analysis and production decisions. Proceedings. of a Workshop, Cooperative State Research Service, Washington, D.C. 141p.

U.S.D.A. Land and Water Conservation Taskforce. 1979. Impact and capability of soil and water conservation practices (3 vols.), USDA, Washington, D.C.

U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service. 1970. River basins of the United States. 2nd Ed., Hyattsville, Md. 88p.


Van Brocklin, R.M. 1953. The movement for the conservation of natural resources in the United States before 1901. PhD Diss, Univ. Michigan (microfilm)

Van Hook, R.I., D.W. Johnson, and B.P. Spalding (1980) Zinc distribution and cycling in forest ecosystems. pp. 419-437. IN J. Nriagu (ed.), Zinc in the Environment, Part I: Ecological Cycling. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Van Hook, R.I., D.W. Johnson, D.C. West, and L. K. Mann. 1981. Environmental effects of harvesting forests for energy. For. Ecol. Manage. 4:79-94.

Vitousek, P.M., T. Fahey, D.W. Johnson, and M.J. Swift. Element interactions in forest ecosystems: Succession, allometry, and input-output budgets. Blogeochemistry 8:7-34.

Van Arsdall, R. T. and P. J. Devlin. 1978. Energy policies: price impact in the U.S. food system. U.S.D.A. Agric. Econ. Report No. 407, Washington, D.C. 44p.

Van Dyne, G. M. (Ed.). 1969. The ecosystem concept in natural resource management. Academic Press, New York, N. Y. xii + 383p.

VonBertalanffy, L. 1968, General system theory: foundations, development, applications. Braziller Co., New York, N.Y. xv + 289 pp.


Waldon, J. 1987. Maximizing wildlife benefits through hardwood timber harvest scheduling. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.

Wallmo, O. c. 1981. Mule and black-tailed deer or North America, U. Nebraska Press. Lincoln, Neb. xvii + 605 pp.

Watson, G. and D. Johnson. 1972. Social psychology --issues and insights. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa. 499 pp.

Wigand, P.E., 1986?Comparison of Late Holocene environments from woodrat middens and pollen,Diamond Craters, Oregon. In Fossil Packrat Middens: The Last 40,000 Years of Biotic Change, University of ArizonaPress

Wigand, P.E., 1987. A revaluation of the Marines Rockshelter radiocarbon chronology. American Antiquity 52(1):118-12

Wharton, R.A., P.E. Wigand, M.R. Rose, R.L. Reinhardt, D.A. Mouat, H.E. Klieforth, N.L.Ingraham, J.O. Davis, C.A. Fox, and J.i Ball. 1990. The North American Great Basin: A sensitive indicator of climatic change. Chapter 9 IN: B. Osmond, Ed. Plant Biology of the Basin and Range. Springer-Verlag Ecological Studies Series, Volume 79.

Wilcox, B.A. 1984. In situ conservation of genetic resources: Determinants of minimum area requirements. Pp. 639-647 in: J.A. McNeeley and K.R. Miller, Eds., National Parks, Conservation, and Development: The Role of Protected Areas in Sustaining Society. Proceedings of the World Congress on National Parks, Bali, Indonesia, 11-22 October 1982. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Wilson, E.O. 1988. Biodiversity. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. 521 pp.

Wilson, E.O. 1998. Consilience: the unity of knowledge, Alfred A Knopf, New York, NY 332pp.

Woodward, El. 1987. Climate and plant distribution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 174 pp.

Wagner, F.H. , C.D. Besadny, and C. Kabat. 1965. Population ecology and management of Wisconsin pheasants. Wisc. Cons. Dept. Tech. Bull. No. 34. 168 p.

Walters, C.J. and J.E. Gross. 1972. Development of big game management plans through simulation modeling. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 36(l):119-128.

Westman, Walter E. 1990. Managing for biodiversity: unresolved science and policy questions. Bioscience 40( l):26-33.

Waggoner, P. E. and J. C. Horsfall. 1969. EPIDEM: A simulator of plant disease written with a computer. Bull. Connecticut Agric. Exp. Sta., New Haven, Conn. 80p.

Watt, K. E. F. 1973. Principles of environmental science. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. xiv + 319p.

Watt, K. E. F. 1975. Critique and comparison of biome ecosystem modeling, p. 139-152 in B. C. Batten (ed.), Systems analysis and simulation in -ecology. III. Academic Press, New York. 601p.

Watt, K. B. F. 1968. Ecology and resource management. McGraw-Hill, New York, 450p.

Watt, K. E. F. 1973. Principles of environmental science. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. xiv + 319 p.

Will, G.B., R.D.Strumvoll, R.f. Gotie, and E.S. Smith. 1982. The ecological zones of Northern New York, New York Fish and Game Journal, 29(1):1-25

Wolfram, S. 2002, A new kind of science. Wolfram media, Inc., Champaign, IL., 1197p. + index

Wunderlich, 0. 1978. Facts about U.S. landownership. USDA. Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Agric. Info. Bull. No. 422, Washington, D.C. 20250. 29p:



Yoakum, J., W. P. Dasmann, H. Reed Sanderson, C. M. Nixon, and H. S. Crawford. 1980. Habitat improvement techniques,p. 329-403 in S. D. Schemnitz (ed.), Wildlife management techniques manual. 4th Ed. The Wildl. Soc., Washington, D.C. 686pp.


Zhu, Zhiliand. 1994. Forest density mapping in the lower 48 states: a regression procedure. USDA For. Service, Res Paper SO-280, Southern Forest Exp. Station, New Orleans, LA, , 11p.

I hope that we may correspond for their additions and improvements. Just send me an e-mail note. The mailing address is 504 Rose Avenue, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA 24060.

Go to top of page.

Other Resources:
[ HOME | Lasting Forests (Introductions) | Units of Lasting Forests | Ranging | Guidance | Forests | Gamma Theory | Wildlife Law Enforcement Systems | Antler Points | Species-Specific Management (SSM) | Wilderness and Ancient Forests | Appendices | Ideas for Development | Disclaimer]
Quick Access to the Contents of

This Web site is maintained by R. H. Giles, Jr.
Last revision August 31, 2006.