Rural System's

Selected References on Net Primary Production Energy and Biomass Levels in Terrestrial Ecosystems


Baskerville, G.L. 1966. Dry matter production in immature balsam fir stands: roots, lesser vegetation, and total stand. For. Sci. 12:49-53.

Boyd. C.E. 1971. The dynamics of dry matter and chemical substances in a Juncus effusua population. Am. Mid. Nat. 86:28-45.

Eckhardt, F.W. (ed.). 1968. Functioning in terrestrial ecosystems at the primary production level. UNESCO, Paris.

Golley, F.B. 1960. Energy dynamics of a food chain of an old-field community. Ecol. Mon. 30:187-206.

Golley, F.B. 1961. Energy values for ecological materials. Ecology 42:581-584.

Hanley, D.P. 1976, tree biomass and productivity estimated for three habitat types of Northern Idaho. Univ. of Idaho College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences Bull. No. 14, 15 p.

Kira, T. and T. Shidei. 1967. Primary production and turnover of organic matter in different forest ecosystems of the western Pacific. Jap. Jour. Ecol. 17:70-87.

Kucera, C.L., R.C. Dahlman, and M.R. Koelling. 1967. Total net productivity and turnover on an energy basis for tallgrass prairie. Ecology 48:536-541.

Lomnicki, A., E. Bandola, and K. Jankowska. 1968. Modification of the Wiegert-Evans method for estimation of net primary production. Ecology 49:147-149.

Medin, D.E. 1960. References on methods of measuring production and utilization of range and pasture forage. Col. Dept. Game and Fish Tech. Bull. No. 6, 43 p.

Morris, M.J., K.L. Johnson, and D.L. Neal. 1976. Sampling shrub ranges with an electronic capacitance instrument. Jour. Range Manage. 29:78-81. National Research Council. 1962. Range research: basic problems and techniques. Nat. Acad. Sci. Nat. Res. Counc. Pub. No. 890. Washington, D.C.

Neal, D.L., P.O. Currie, and M.L. Morris. 1976. Sampling herbaceous native vegetation with an electronic capacitance instrument. J. Range. Manage. 29:74-55.

Neal, D.L. And J.L. Neal. 1973. Uses and capabilities of electronic capacitance instruments for extimating standing herbage. Part I. History and development. J. Br. Grassld. Soc. 28:81-89.

Newbould, P.J. 1967. Methods for estimating the primary production of forests. IBP Handbook No. 2. Blackwell, Oxford.

Odum, E.P. 1960. Organic production and turnover in old field succession. Ecology 41:34-49.

Ohmann, E.F., D.F. Grigal and R.B. Brander. 1976. Biomass estimation for five shrubs from northeastern Minnesota. U.S.D.A., Forest Service Res. Pap. NC-133.

Ovington, J.D., D Heitkamp and D.B. Lawrence. 1963. Plant biomass and productivity of prairie, savanna, and maize field ecosystems in central Minnesota. Ecology 44:52-63.

Poissonet, P. 1971. Comparison des resultats obtenus par diverses methods d'analyses de la vegetation dans une prairie permanente. P. 39-71. In Ph. Daget (ed.). Methods d'inventair phyto-ecologique et agromonique des prairies permenentes. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Montpellier, France. Document No. 56.

Rochow, J.J. 1974. Estimates for above-ground biomass and primary productivity in a Missouri U.S.A. forest. J. Ecol. 62:567-577.

Rodin, L.E. and N.I. Bazilevic. 1964. The biological productivity of the main vegetation types in the Northern Hemisphere of the Old World. For. Abstr. 37:369-372.

Siccama, T.G., F.H. Bormann and G.E. Likens. 1970. The Hubbard Brook ecosystem study: productivity, nutrients, and phytosociology of the herbaceous layer. Ecol. Monogr. 40:389-402.

Tadmor, N.H., A. Brieghet, I. Noy-Meir, R.W. Benjamin and E. Eyal. 1975. An evaluation of the calibrated weight-estimate method for measuring production in annual vegetation. Jour. Range. Manage. 28:66-69.

Tappeiner, J.C. and H.H. John. 1973. Biomass and nutrient content of hazel undergrowth. Ecology 54:1342-1347.

Telfer, E.S. 1969. Weight-diameter relationships for 22 woody plant species. Can. J. Bot. 47:1851-1855.

U.S.D.A., Forest Service (ed.). 1959. Techniques and methods of measuring understory vegetation. Proc. Symposium at Tifton, GA., October, 1958. Southern For. Exper. Sta. and Southeastern For. Exper. Sta.

U.S.D.A., Forest Service. 1963. Range research methods. U.S.D.A., Forest Service misc. Publ. 940. Govt. Printing Office, Wash. D.C., 172 p.

Wells, C.G., J.R. Jorgensen and C.E. Burnette. 1975. Biomass and mineral elements in a thinned loblolly pine plantation at age 16. U.S.D.A., Forest Service Res. Paper. SE-126, 10 p.

Whittaker, R.H. 1961. Estimation of net primary production of forest and shrub communities. Ecology 42:177-183.

Whittaker, R.H. 1963. Net production of health balds and forest heaths in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 44:176-182.

Whittaker, R.H.. 1965. Dominance and diversity in land plant communities. Science 147:250-260.

Whittaker, R.H. 1966. Forest dimensions and production in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 47:103-121.

Whittaker, R.H. and P. Marks. 1975. Methods of assessing terrestrial productivity, p. 55-118. In Lieth, H. and R. Whittaker (eds.). Primary productivity of the biosphere. Springer-Verlag, Inc.: New York, NY 339 p.

Whittaker, R.H. and G.M. Woodwell. 1968. Dimension and production relations of trees and shrubs in the Brookhaven Forest, New York. J. Ecol. 30:1-25.

Wiegert, R.G. 1962. The selection of an optimum quadrant size for sampling the standing crop of grasses and forbs. Ecology 43:125-129.

Wiegert, R.G. and F.C. Evans. 1964. Primary production and the disappearance of dead vegetation of an old field in southeastern Michigan. Ecology 45:49-63.

Wilm, H.G., D.F. Costello, and G.E. Klipple. 1949. Estimating forage yield by the double sampling method. Jour. Am. Soc. Agron. 36:194-203.

Woodwell, G.M. and T.G. Marples. 1968. The influence of chronic gamma radiation on the production and decay of litter and humus in an oak-pine forest. Ecology 49:456-465.

Woodwell, G.M. and R.H. Whittaker. 1968. Primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Amer. Zool. 8:19-30.

Zavitkovski, J. and R.D. Stevens. 1972. Primary productivity of red alder ecosystems. Ecology 53:235-242.

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Robert H. Giles, Jr.
July 3, 2005