A unit of Lasting Forests
evolving since March 30, 1999

A Total Forest Management Plan
and Wildland Management
Decision Support System

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When someone says " marketing is simply ..." we suspect that they are amateurs. Maybe it is understanding what people value or catches their imagination and then responding with products and services ... but it seems much more than that.

Herein, marketing includes advertising and analyzing the needs of customers to deliver needed and desired products and services. It includes the analysis as well as the delivery system...and the bridges that need to be made between the abilities of Lasting Forests and the land owner and potential buyers, users, and clients.

Fundamental parts of local marketing are:

The following is a list to produce thought and questions about the local situation and conditions and to see if anything more effective could be done within each area to remove barriers or enhance the delivery of effective services or products.

Those with an * are believed by experts to be the most important.

  1. Name
  2. Product or service niche
  3. Color
  4. Identity
  5. Logo
  6. Theme
  7. Package
  8. Size
  9. Decor
  10. Attire
  11. Pricing
  12. Business card
  13. Stationary
  14. Order form/invoice
  15. Inside signs
  16. Outside signs
  17. Hours of operation
  18. Days of operation
  19. Phone demeanor
  20. Neatness
  21. Location
  22. Window displays
  23. Business plan
  24. Advertising*
  25. Distribution
  26. Service*
  27. Follow-up
  28. Customer service
  29. Community involvement
  30. Tie-ins with others
  31. Public relations
  32. Publicity contacts
  33. Reprints of ads and publicity
  34. Web appearance and functions
  35. Special events
  36. Testimonials and lists of customers
  37. Smiles
  38. Greetings
  39. Contact time with customer
  40. Sales training
  41. Sales presentations
  42. Sales representatives
  43. Audiovisual aids
  44. Audiotapes and videotapes
  45. Refreshments offered
  46. Availability of financing
  47. Credit cards
  48. Convenience
  49. Communications
  50. Club and association membership
  51. Team sponsorships
  52. Word of mouth
  53. Circulars
  54. Brochures
  55. Samples
  56. Consultations
  57. Demonstrations
  58. Seminars and lectures
  59. Column in a publication
  60. Books and articles
  61. Contests and sweepstakes
  62. Phone-hold marketing
  63. Music theme
  64. Booths for malls/streets
  65. Roadside stands
  66. Farmers and flea markets
  67. Access to ad. materials
  68. Access to co-op funds
  69. Research studies*
  70. Classified ads
  71. Magazine ads
  72. Yellow pages ads
  73. Direct-marketing
  74. Direct-mail postcards
  75. Direct mail letters
  76. Catalog
  77. Newsletter
  78. Inserts
  79. Trade-show display
  80. Merchandise displays
  81. Billboards
  82. Balloons, blimps, and searchlights
  83. Advertising specialties
  84. Posters
  85. Bus and wind shelters
  86. Telemarketing
  87. Take-one boxes
  88. Radio commercials
  89. Television commercials
  90. Gift certificates
  91. Gift baskets
  92. Human bonds*
  93. Competitiveness*
  94. Convenience
  95. Speed
  96. Reputation*
  97. Brand-name awareness*
  98. Credibility*
  99. Enthusiasm*
  100. Customer mailing list*
  101. Marketing savvy
  102. Satisfied customers
  103. List of donations and public service work
  104. On-line services
  105. Company description
  106. Description of staff

*Ten most important weapons

Perhaps self evident, the following are marketing guidelines presented to prepare owners and advisors when addressing the news media for emphasis:

  1. Tell the truth. (Never lie! "60 Minutes" producer Don Hewitt says, "If you have anything to hide, avoid the press.")
  2. Be accurate
  3. Verify all information
  4. Slow down; avoid the feeling of "instant" response
  5. Identify the source of information, briefly, on the record
  6. Persist to reduce clutter; repeat and repeat
  7. Adversarial but amicable; courtest and respect
  8. Use humor.

Strategies for Media Interviews for Marketing

  1. Become familiar with the Lasting Forests notes above.
  2. Use interviews to make the audience aware of the Lasting Forests, its units, and then the topic.
  3. Use the key ideas: focus, clarity, and repetition (FCR).
  4. Do not educate the speaker; educate the likely audience - those who will see or hear the interview.
  5. Look at the interviewer, not the camera.
  6. It is OK to smile.
  7. Don't think of the media as the "Press" or as being monolithic. Separate print from TV, TV from radio, commercial from public media, talk show from "straight news" of "tabloid program."
  8. If a reporter asks for an interview, comply. Refusing to grant interviews does nothing more than ensure that your side of the dispute receives no coverage.
  9. Never, ever say "No Comment" (it sounds so incriminating, doesn't it?) unless you see no other option. In fact, there are options, there are ways of not commenting without saying those dreaded words.
  10. Your goal should be to express yourself, the 6 C's; concisely, candidly, conversationally, clearly, correctly, and with compassion.
  11. Use credible spokespeople. Sincerity, credibility, and accuracy are all important qualities for a spokesperson to possess. Agency spokespeople should also be well-spoken, even-tempered, authoritative, and have a presentable appearance.
  12. Establish your professional credibility (personal, professional credentials, moderate and reasonable tone, accuracy).
  13. Limit the number of spokespeople on the scene. Spokespeople should have some training and skill at coping with news media and should not contradict each other. Agency spokespeople should have 2-3 key points to emphasize in interviews; all spokespeople should emphasize the same messages.
  14. News statement. Prepare an initial news statement that covers time and place of the protest; the nature of the event, and the number of people involved. Predigest information. Take notes for a handout.
  15. Set up "file tape" situations for later use with more "nightly news" situations.
  16. Whenever possible, speak in "sound bites", without diluting your message, condense, get to the point, speak in pictures or visuals yourself! Don't let yourself drone on, avoid complicated explanations and use concrete powerful examples or stories to make your point. Stick to the subject.
  17. Prepare. Even for a brief comment. Say you'll call back (and do so) say you have to go to the toilet. Use a few minutes to prepare.
  18. Remain the source. Let the news media know you appreciate the opportunity to help them get the story told quickly, completely, and accurately, and that it's in your best interest, as well as theirs, to work together. You want to remain the source.
  19. Keep your promise. If you make a promise to get back to the reporter with more information, keep the promise. Make sure you get the information to the reporter by his/her deadline.
  20. Before you begin a television interview, ensure that your backdrop is neutral. You don't want protest signs, hunters field dressing game, or bar signs behind you on the camera - these distractions can change or color the meaning of your message.
  21. Be positive and confident. Project a positive image of the company and your division with which you work. During the interview, you should inject messages about improving resource management and quality of life and employment.
  22. Try to relate your statement to something of personal interest to the audience.
  23. Repeat, repeat, repeat. Be sure that even if massive parts of the interview are cut, the message will be present in the segment left. Repeat your 2 or 3 main points over and over again; often, it's not a conversation or even a real interview, the reporter is looking for a 5, 10, or maximum 15 second bite for his or her 1:30 story. (To achieve this, you must have a soco; a single overriding communication objective (pro-choice, pro-life, anti-gun, no taxes)).
  24. "Numbers" stories seldom are of interest. People stories are of interest. Tell what an employee is doing, not the results by itself.
  25. Keep it simple. The majority is operating at an 8th grade literacy level, that of a 10 year old child.
  26. Use examples.
  27. Become sensitive to boring topics. Get help in transforming them.
  28. What makes news that reporters like
  29. TV lends itself to images, not words or numbers. Try to assemble images and use them.
  30. Never lose control. The interview is not personal. The reporter is not your friend or your enemy. Kill them with kindness. In most situations, the media iare holding most of the cards. You can't "control" the press.
  31. Avoid defensive language. Frame your statements in a positive tone. For example, if a negative question is posed, don't say, "No, hunting isn't a means to artificially inflate deer populations. Instead say, "Deer herds are managed by the most up-to-date techniques available to professional wildlife managers."
  32. Don't be tricked into engaging in any response that would make the protesters appear to be victims of a heavy-handed government agency. Often, protesters will heckle or exchange insults with an agency spokesperson as he/she is being interviewed in an attempt to get on camera. Do not allow this to happen. If your spokesperson is being heckled, he/she should say something like, "I'm afraid these people are going to prevent you from interviewing me" to the reporter, and end the interview. This will make the activists seem unfair and unreasonable to the reporter and to the viewing audience.

    You might ask, for example, "Where are you going with this?"

  33. Don't wait to be asked a question to make your point; you are not a victim. You shouldn't be a slave to questions, rather, be clear on what you want to say and say it. Your "agenda" is just as important, if not more important, than the reporter's agenda. Say to a reporter, "You know there's an important point that we haven't touched on."
  34. Know the rules of talking with reporters (i.e., "on the record," "off the record," "background," "not for attribution"). Never say "off the record ... ."
  35. Ask questions of the reporter to get in charge: who, when, why. Find a deadline (if any.)
  36. Set the ground rules and agenda (I'll discuss XYZ today; ABC later).
  37. Control length (1/2 hour max; get someone to interrupt; quit while you are ahead).
  38. Refocus - say "That's not what this is about ..."
  39. Do not criticize the protesters; criticize their cause. Agency spokespeople should defend the rights of activists to protest; while disagreeing with their goals. Include at least one statement in all media interviews about the animal rights agenda. For example, "Of course they are opposed to hunting. They have made it clear that they are opposed to all uses of animals including fishing, pet ownership, livestock farming, mouse traps, bug sprays, and medical research."
  40. Refer if needed ("I'll call you"; I'll find you an expert on that topic; get third party verification, etc.).
  41. Do not repeat the activists' message. If a reporter asks you why the activists are protesting hunting or any other agency programs, don't say, "They believe that hunting is immoral, that hunters are slobs, and that our agency's only goal is to provide targets for hunters." Instead, tell the reporter that he/she will have to ask the activists why they are protesting. Never repeat a negative message; instead focus on reinforcing your 2-3 key messages. Don't use up time on the negatives.
  42. Do not answer hypothetical questions; discuss what did happen.
  43. The press is not equipped for the wildland topic. We must work with them gradually, long-term. Avoid the tendency to over-educate. The reporter is the bridge, not the audience.
  44. When on TV, sometimes your demeanor, appearance, and image is more important that the actual words you use. It is a visual medium.
  45. Voice level and quality is important; work on it.
  46. Dress and hair are important. Wear blue; no plaid or checks.
  47. Slow speech; most people speed up when nervous.
  48. Do not memorize material to present.
  49. Gestures are OK; keep them away from your face.
  50. Lean forward if seated.
  51. Use a tape recorder (for protection).
  52. Remember, dealing with the press is a complex "game" with a lot of variables beyond your control. We are dealing with a very "subjective" process. It can be dangerous, but it can be tremendously rewarding. But no matter how prepared you may be, you'll never bat 100%, so take your best shot and relax.
  53. Tough issue strategy:

These strategies were compiled from numerous sources, including Steve Adubato, Jr., Rutgers University 1993, the Fur Information Council of America, the Wisconsin DNR, Virginia Dept. of Game and Inland Fisheries, and Stephen Rafe's book Mastering the News Media interview. See Media Smart (Stauffer. For further information, contact the Proactive Strategies Project.

Sample marketing letter (after Bezos, Amazon.com, 1999)

Thanks you for making yearxxxx such an exciting year for us. We're having a fantastic time and we're extremely grateful for your support. As a gesture of our appreciation we are sending this small gift - the zzzz - and hope that you enjoy it.

As you know, since we started in xxxx, people have been telling us that we're crazy. We've been working to build a place on the Internet and a field staff where people can come to find and discover how to get effective, sophisticated, modern wildland management and then to have it implemented on their lands. The parts of our concept of an integrated modern wildland system existing for profit include: forestry, wildlife, advanced recreation, fisheries, tourism, and a variety of hiking, camping, and outdoors related activities. We're nowhere close to the finish line of our vision but we've made a lot of progress and we won't give up.

All of the suggestions and feedback that we received in the past year were very helpful and became a major part of our decisions. Thanks again and best wishes for the New Year filled with family, friends, and happiness.

Sincerely yours, etc.


See Champe Green's Thesis (The following is a partial list from that work on early adapters. I edited and was an early contributor and committee member.)

Adams, C. A,, R. A. Stone, and 3. K. Thomas. 1988. Conservation education within information and education divisions of state natural resource agencies. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16(3):329-333.

Alexander, L, and S. R. Kellert. 1984. Forest landowners perceptions of wildlife management in New England. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. and Nat. Res. Conf. 49:164-173.

Applegate, J. E. 1961. Landowners behavior in dealing with wildlife values, p.64-72 In: R. T. Dumke, G. V. Burger and J.R.March (Eds.), Proceedings of Symposium: Wildlife management on private lands. La Crosse Printing Co., La Crosse, Wisc.

Bandura, A. 1966. Social foundations of thought and action. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 617 pp.

Bauder, J. W., and J. S. Hickman. 1966. Tillage committees: a local approach to effective extension education. J. Soil and Water Cons. 43(2):130-132.

Berryman, 3. H. 1961. Needed now: an action program to maintain and manage wildlife habitat on private lands, p.6-9 In: R. T. Dumke, G. V. Burger and J. R. March (Eds.), Proceedings of Symposium: Wildlife management on private lands. La Crosse Publ. Co., La Crosse, Wisc.

Birch, I. W. 1983. Private forestland owners in the U.S.: their number and characteristics. In: J. Royer and C. Risbrudt (Eds.), Nonindustrial Private Forest: A review of economic and Policy Studies. Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

Blanchard, K. A., and M. C. Monroe. 1990. Effective educational strategies for reversing population declines in seabirds. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. and Nat.Res.Conf. 55: 108-117.

Brandner, L., and B. Kearl. 1964. Evaluation for congruence as a factor in adoption rate of innovation. Rural Soc. 9(3): 288-303.

Black, 3. S. 1982. Opinion leaders: is anyone following? Public Opinion Quarterly 46: 169-176.

Bunnell, P. 1966. Guidelines for forestry extension. ForestResource Development Agreement Report 046. Env. and Soc. Sys. Anal. Ltd., Vancouver, B. C.

Busch, L., and W. B. Lacy. 1963. Information flows in research and extension: an alternative perspective. The Rural Sociologist 3(2):92-97.

Christensen, W. W., and A. E. Grafton. 1966. Characteristics, objectives and motivations of woodland owners in W.Va., W.Va. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 538. 28pp.

Charter, S., and J. Charter. 1965. Management clubs - an innovative approach to training. The Savory Letter. 8:16-17.

Comptroller General of the U. S. 1972. The Forest Service needs to ensure that the best possible use is made of its research program findings. Report to Congress of the U.S. Dept. of Agric. Gen. Acct. Off., Washington, DC . 29 pp.

Crowell, J. B. 1964. Can timber growing investments be profitable? J. For. 62(9): 536-538.

Defleur, M. L., and S. Ballrokeach. 1975. Theories of mass communication. 3rd Ed. McKay Publ. Co., New York, N.Y. 263pp.

Deknatel, C. 1979. Wildlife habitat development on private lands: a planning approach to rural land use. J. Soil Water Cons. 34(6): 260-263.

Dickson, A. 1970. Receptivity of absentee forest owners to extension forestry. Unpublished PhD. Diss., Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 333 pp.

Doolittle, L. and J. Straka. 1967. Regeneration following harvest on nonindustrial private pine sites in the South: a diffusion of innovations perspective. South. J. App. For. 11: 37-40.

Elifson, K. W., R. P. Runyon, and A. Haber. 1982. Fundamentals of social statistics. Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass. 563 pp.

Fesco, R. S. 1982. Management practices and reforestation decisions for harvesting timber. USDA Stat. Reporting Service, Washington, DC.

Fessler, D. R. 1958. Making meetings effective. VPI Agric. Ext.Service, Circular 772. Blacksburg, VA l9pp.

Geller, E. S. 1989. Applied behavior analysis and social marketing: an integration for environmental preserva-tion. J. Soc. Issues. 45(1): 17-36.

General Accounting Office. 1977. To protect tomorrow's food supply, soil conservation needs priority attention. Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC. CED-77-30.

Giles, R. H., Jr. 1978. Wildlife management. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, CA. 4l6pp.

Giles, RH., Jr.. 1981. Assessing landowner objectives for wildlife, p. 112-129 In: R. I. Dumke, J. V. Burger and J.R. March (Eds.), Proceedings of Symposium: Wildlife management on private lands. La Crosse Printing Co., La Crosse, Wisc.

Goss, K. F. 1979. Consequences of diffusion of innovations. Rural Sociology 44(4):754-772.

Gramann, 3. H. 1984. Sociological issues in nonindustrial private forestry. Rural Sociologist 4(5): 364-368.

Granovetter, M. 1983. The strength of weak ties -- a network theory revisited. In: R.Collins (Ed.), Sociological Theory 1983. Jossey Bros. Publ., San Francisco, CA. p. 20l-233.

Griffin, W. V. 1981. A private landowner looks at education. p. 293-295 In: R. T. Dumke, G. V. Burger and J. R. March (Eds.), Proceedings of Symposium: Wildlife management on private lands. La Crosse Printing Co., La Crosse, Wisc.

Haymond, J. L. 1985. Diffusing silvicultural innovations in the nonindustrial private forestland owners' social system: a study of opinion leaders. Unpublished PhD. Diss., Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC. l5l pp.

Haymond, J. L.1968. Adoption of silvicultural practices by opinion leaders who own non-industrial private forestland. South. J. Appl. For. 12(1):20-23.

Haymond, J. L.1966. NIPF opinion leaders: what do they want? J. For. 66(4): 30-35.

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Martson, E. 1992. Who ya gonna call? High Country News 24(5):11.

Hodge, S. S., and L. Southard. 1992. A profile of Virginia NIPF landowners: results of a 1991 survey. Va. For. 47(4): 7-11.

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Jahn, L. R. 1986. The potential for wildlife habitat improvements. J. Soil and Water Cons. 43(1): 67-69.

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King, C. W. and J. 0. Summers, 1970. Overlap of opinion leadership across consumer product categories. J. Marketing Research 7:43-50.

Kivlin, J. E. 1960. Characteristics of farm practices associated with rate of adoption. Unpublished PhD. Diss., Penn. State Univ. University Park, PA

MacNamara, M. 1985. Action learning and organizational development. 3. Organizational Develop. Summer,1985: 10-15.

Maslow, A. H. 1970. Motivation and personality. 2nd Edition. Harper and Row. New York, NY 369pp.

McEvoy, T. J. 1985. An educational approach to increase the production of multiple benefits from private nonindus- trial woodlands in America. p. 116-120 In: Work-shop Proceedings: Technologies to benefit agriculture and wildlife. Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC

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Mills, S. 1991. Salons and beyond. Utne (sic) Reader. Mar./Apr. 1991: 66-77.

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