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W

Warm-water Fishery
Stream and lake waters that support fishes with a maximum summer water temperature tolerance of about 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Bluegills, perch and large-mouthed bass are examples.
Washery Refuse
The refuse removed at preparation plants from newly mined coal.
WATDOC
Water Resources Document Reference Centre, Canadian Department of the Environment. Provides water-resources information services in Canada, and is mutually affiliated with NAWDEX in a reciprocal arrangement for the exchange of data.
Waterbar
A diversion ditch and or hump across a trail or road tied into the uphillside to carry water runoff into the vegetation, duff, dirch, or dispersion area so that it does not gain the volume and velocity which causes soil movement and erosion.
Water-level
See Water table.
Water-related Data
Any data having significance to users of water data or to those conducting water-resource projects or investigations. Examples are meteorological, water use, oceanographic, agricultural, demographic, etc.
Water Influence Zone
Areas comprising existing or anticipated significant public outdoor recreational occupancy, use, and enjoyment along streams and rivers and around lakes, reservoirs, and other bodies of water, areas in which uses and activities are oriented to overwater travel and outdoor recreation. These are areas in which beauty, aesthetic values, and water quality, and usefulness are key management values, are an important part of the environment, and offer significant opportunities for existing, anticipated, or planned use and enjoyment by persons visiting or traveling through the zone. Includes areas immediately adjacent to and surrounding developed or planned sites along the banks and shores where people may fish or stroll. Comprises areas adjacent to the water along over-water travel routes and water sports use where the immediate scenic frame and foreground are subject to close scrutiny. Other foreground and backdrop areas should be recognized in other zones with appropriate management emphasis on beauty and esthetic values. Live and intermittent streams and waters where developed facilities for occupancy and use do not exist, or are not anticipated or planned, or areas which are seldom visited for recreation and enjoyment, are usually not included. Such areas should be recognized in other management zones with due consideration given to the aquatic and related wildlife habitat and to soil and water values.
Water Pollution
Any substance or energy form (heat, light, noise, etc.) which alters the state of a body of water from what would naturally occur. Especially associated with those altered states which human value judgements have decreed as bad.
Water Quality
The fitness of water for use, being affected by physical, chemical, and biological factors.
Water Resource Inventory (WRI)
An organized characterization and evaluation of the water resource designed to address identified issues and concerns.
Water Table
That surface in a ground-water body at which the water pressure is atmospheric. The highest point in a soil profile where water saturates the soil on a seasonal or permanent basis. It is defined by the levels at which water stands in wells that penetrate the water body just far enough to hold standing water. In wells that penetrate to greater depths, the water level will stand above the confining upper bed of the aquifer.
Water Table, Perched (Perched Ground Water Table)
The upper surface of a local zone of soil water saturation held above the main body of groundwater by an impermeable layer or stratum, (usually clay) and separated from the main body of groundwater by an unsaturated zone.
Water Year
In Geological Survey reports and statistics dealing with surface-water supply, the 12-month period of October 1 through September 30 is known as a water year. The water year is Designated by the calendar year in which it ends and which includes 9 of 12 months. Thus, the year that ended September 30, 1990, is called the 1990 water year.
Water Yield
(1) The volume of water runoff from a watershed, including groundwater outflow. (2) The total net amount of water produced on a wildland, including streamflow and groundwater recharge.
Waterhole
An impoundment constructed or maintained to provide a water source for wildlife and other uses.
Watershed (Drainage Basin, Catchment Basin, River Basin)
(1) The total region or area above a given point on a stream or lake that contributes water to the flow at that point. It is Designated by the dividing line of area from which surface streams flow in two different directions; the line separating two contiguous drainage areas. (2) United States usage. The total area above a given point on a stream that contributes water to the flow at that point. The entire region drained by a waterway or which drains into a lake or reservoir. (3) British usage. The topographic dividing line from which surface streams flow in two different directions; the line separating two contiguous drainage areas. (4) The area drained by a stream and its tributaries. See Watershed Terminology.
Watershed Assessment
An analysis and interpretation of the physical and landscape characteristics of a watershed using scientific principles to describe watershed conditions as they affect water quality and aquatic resources. Initial watershed assessments will be conducted using existing data, where available. Data gaps may suggest the collection of additional data (65 FR 62572, October 18, 2000).
Watershed Condition
The state of the watershed based on physical and biogeochemicalcharacteristics and processes (such as, hydrologic, geomorphic, landscape, topographic,vegetative cover, and aquatic habitat), water flow characteristics and processes (such as volume and timing), and water quality characteristics and processes (such as chemical, physical, and biological) as they affect water quality and water resources (65 FR 62572, October 18, 2000).
Watershed Integrity
A watershed that maintains its characteristic diversity of biological and physical components, structure, and functional processes within its approximate range of natural variability. Watersheds with integrity display processes that manifest their characteristic structure, function, and composition. These processes include natural disturbance regimes, nutrient cycling, hydrologic functions, vegetation successlon, and species adaptation and evolution. Watersheds with integrity are resilient and capable of self-renewal within the cumulative effects of human and natural disturbances.(USFS 1999)
Watershed Management
Managing all the natural resources of a watershed to protect, maintain, or improve its desired water budget, both quantity and quality, over time.
Watershed Protection
A combination of complementary practices of land treatment and structural works to maintain or improve total yield, quality, stability of flow of surface and subsurface water and prevention of damage and loss due to excessive and uncontrolled runoff, flooding, salination, and siltation.
WATSTORE
The National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. A large scale computerized system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the storage and retrieval of water data collected through its activities.
WDSD
Water Data Sources Directory. A computerized database developed and maintained by the National Water Data Exchange that contains information about organizations that collect, store, and disseminate water data and water-related data.
Weather (Meteorological Condition)
The state of the atmosphere at a definite time and place with respect to air temperature, humidity, wind, precipitation, cloudiness, etc. "Climate" is long-term and generalizes trends or types.
Weed
An unwanted plant.
Weed Cutting (Weeding)
(1) Cutting made in a young forest stand, not past the sapling stage, to free the small trees from weeds, brush, chaparral, vines, sod-forming grasses, or other competing vegetation. (2) A cultural operation eliminating or suppressing undesirable vegetation, mainly herbaceous, during the seedling stage of a forest crop.
Weighting
Assigning numbers to express the relative importance of items (e.g., resource yields) in a group or series under consideration usually not be directly compared by existing techniques for quantification on some measurement scale. The assigned numerical values are usually referred to as "weights" or "multipliers". Weighting is usually done according to some objective sense of the relative importance of the different types of resource yields. While weightings are usually added (i.e., additive weighting) to obtain a measure of the total social value of resource uses or resource yield mixes for planning areas, they may also be multiplied or divided (or some combination of these processes) to facilitate decision making.
Well Depth
The greatest depth below land surface at which water can enter a well. For screened or perforated wells, the depth to the bottom of the screen or to the lowest perforations. For open-hole or open-end wells, the total depth.
Well-stocked
The situation in which a forest stand contains trees spaced widely enough to prevent competition yet closely enough to utilize the entire site.
Wetlands
Lands sometimes or always covered by shallow water or which have saturated soils where plants adapted for life in wet conditions usually grow.
Wet Lines
A line established by using water with or without a wetting agent, to control wildfires and prescribed fires.
Wet Meadow
A meadow where the surface remains wet or moist throughout the summer, usually characterized by sedges and rushes.
Wet Sites
Areas that are saturated with water and are very poorly drained to somewhat poorly drained.
Wetlands
Areas that are permanently wet, or intermittently water covered, such as swamps, marshes, bogs, muskegs, potholes, swales, glades, and overflow land of river valleys. Salt marshes, and brackish marshes subject to saline and/or tidal influences are usually included. Large, open lakes are commonly excluded, but many kinds of ponds, pools, sloughs, holes, and bayous may be included. These may also be any areas that are more or less regularly wet or flooded. Where the water table stands at or above the land surface for at least part of the year. Shallow lakes and ponds, usually with emergent aquatic vegetation (such as reeds or cattails) as a conspicuous feature, are included in the definition, but the permanent waters of streams, reservoirs and deep lakes are not included. Neither are water areas that are so temporary as to have little or no effect on the development of moist-soil dependent vegetation.These are areas where the presence of water is a dominant factor and produces adverse effects on all vegetation except for aquatic plant communities.
WFUD
Wildlife and Fish User Day - One visitor involved in a wildlife or fish related activity for a 12-hour period (one person for 12 hours, or 12 people for 1 hour each. or any combination thereof).
Wheeled Skidders
An internal combustion wheeled vehicle specifically designed to skid logs from the forest to a transportation system.
Whole-Tree Removal
Felling and transporting the whole tree with its crown and sometimes even its roots for chipping or trimming and cross cutting at a landing or mill.
Whorl
Two to 10 or more branches growing in a ring at a node, surrounding the central leader or stem.
WUI
See Wildland urban interface.
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (82 Stat. 906; 16 U.S.C. 1271 - 1273, 1274(A), 1275(A)
Declares that it is a policy of the United States that certain selected rivers of the nation which, with their immediate environments, possess outstanding remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, cultural, or other similar values, shall be preserved in free-flowing condition, and that they and their immediate environments shall be protected for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations. Implements this policy by instituting a National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, by Designating the initial components of that system, and by prescribing the methods by which and standards according to which additional components may be added to the system from time to time.
Wild and Scenic River Corridor
The area on both sides of a wild or scenic river.
Wild River
Those rivers or sections of rivers that are free of impoundments and generally inaccessible except by trail, with watersheds or shorelines essentially primitive and waters unpolluted.
Wild River Area
Rivers or sections of rivers that are free of impoundments and generally inaccessible except by trail, with watersheds or shorelines essentially primitive and waters unpolluted. These represent vestiges of primitive America.
Wild Trout Stream
A stream that contains natural reproducing population of any trout species generally rainbow, brown, and/or brook trout).
Wilderness
(1) An area of undeveloped federal land retaining its primeval character and influence without permanent improvements of human habitation managed and protected so as to preserve its natural condition, and which (a) generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature with the imprints of man's work substantially unnoticeable; (b) has outstanding opportunities for solitude of a primitive and unconfined type of recreation; (c) has at least 5,000 acres of land and is of sufficient size as to make practical its preservation and use in unimpaired condition; and (d) may also contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value. (2) An area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by people, where people are the visitors who do not remain. In common usage, "wilderness" refers to those backcountry types of wildlands that show no obvious evidence of present or previous human uses other than foot or pack animal trails. Some use the terms primitive and wilderness interchangeably to refer to all areas displaying no obvious evidence of present or previous human uses other than foot or pack animal trails. Others make a distinction between the two, using "primitive" to refer to all areas possessing wilderness qualities and restricting the use of "wilderness" to only those portions of the larger primitive area which have officially been Designated as "wilderness" areas.
Any area of land Designated by Congress as part of the National Wilderness Preservation System that was established in the Wilderness Act of 1964 (16 U.S.C. 1131-1136), (36 CFR 219.16).
Wilderness Act (78 Stat. 890; 16 U.S.C. 1131-1136)
Establishes a National Wilderness Preservation System to be composed of Federally-owned areas Designated by Congress as wilderness areas, and these shall be administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness, and so as to provide for the protection of these areas, the preservation of their wilderness character, and for the gathering and dissemination of information regarding their use and enjoyment as wilderness.
Wilderness Area
A congressionally Designated tract of federal land retaining its primeval character and influence without permanent improvements or human habitation. Management is intended to retain these characteristics.
Wilderness Condition
Describes an environment suitable for becoming a Wilderness Area but one that may or may not be Designated for wilderness area management.
Wilderness Study Area (WSA)
One of the areas selected by Congress from an inventory of unroaded and undeveloped public lands as having apparent high quality for wilderness. They may be studied to determine whether they should be recommended for additional to the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Wildfall
A tree or trees thrown or their stems, broken off, or other parts (branches, foliage, fruit, etc.) blown down by the wind, or the area within which this occurs.
Wildfire (Forest Fire)
Any fire other than a controlled burn or a prescribed burn, occurring on wildland. A free-burning fire unaffected by fire suppression measures. They frequently need to be suppressed, but in some areas they are allowed to burn for ecological or economic reasons.
Wildland
Non-urban areas that are not intensively managed and manipulated. They include most managed forests but not city parks with their exotic plants, "manicured" lawns, and sprinkler systems. The term is not exact because it includes lands that are under management and are not truly wild. Through long usage it has come to apply to lands that are sparsely settled and present a fairly natural appearance. Forests, deserts, mountains, grasslands, and other fallow lands extensive lands are normally included. Crops, pastures, urban, residential, industrial or transportation facilities are excluded. This term is most often used as one of several terms of comparison contrasting the differing degrees of utilization and alteration of land which occur, e.g., urban lands, agriculture lands, and wildlands. The dividing lines between these states cannot be defined in any generally acceptable quantitative terms. The only firm sense of differentiation between these terms exists when they are used to describe broadly contrasting natures and intensities of land utilization. "Wildlands" are simply those natures and intensities of use on the least utilized and altered side of the continuum from totally developed to completely untouched.
Wildland Urban Interface (WUI)
Any place where the housing density meets or exceeds a minimum of 1 house per 40 acres (averaged within a census block and over half of the vegetation within that census block is wildland vegetation - forest, wetland, shrub land, or grassland. Such places may be within city or suburban boundaries. See The Border.
Wildlife
(1) Non-domesticated mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians living in a natural environment, including both game species and non-game species, whether considered benefi-cial or otherwise. (2) All non-domesticated and semi-domesticated mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians living in a natural environment, including both game species and non-game species, whether considered beneficial or otherwise. (3) Animals, or their progeny, which once were domesticated but escaped captivity and are running wild (i.e., feral animals), such as horses, burros, and hogs, are not considered to be wildlife. For some people it means undomesticated vertebrate animals, except fish. Others include wild plants, insects, and macroinvertebrates.
Wildlife and Fish Habitat System
This system of the U.S. Forest Service protects and improves wildlife and fish habitat with special emphasis on threatened and endangered species. Management of wildlife and fish habitats is closely coordinated with the states because they control wildlife and fish populations. This coordination includes 1) close working relations among National Forest, State, and private land managers; (2) cooperative forestry programs designed to assist non-Federal land managers; and (3) research programs that define environmental requirements of fish and wildlife and provide management alternatives through which these requirements can be attained. One of the six "systems" established by the U.S. Forest Service to have a systematic, orderly way to view and evaluate its many diverse but interrelated activities. The Forest Service has developed this approach to respond to the mandates of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974. It has grouped its various programs into these six "systems", each of which incorporates all the activities concerned with developing and managing a specific resource. The six "systems" are: Land and Water, Timber Resource, Outdoor Recreation and Wilderness, Rangeland Grazing, "Wildlife and Fish Habitat", and Human and Community Development.
Wildlife and Fish User Day (WFUD)
A unit used to measure visitor days, expressed as a 12-hour increment, representing use of the fish and wildlife resource for benefits.
Wildlife, Consumptive
Game and fur-bearing species harvested for sport, food, fur, study, or commerce.
Wildlife Habitat
All of the environmental conditions of a specific place occupied by a wildlife population. The native environment of an animal, ideally providing all elements required for life and growth: food, water, cover, and space.
Wildlife Land
Land and water managed primarily for fish and wildlife. Wildlife may be a secondary use of land with cropland, rangeland, woodland, etc., as the primary use.
Wildlife Plantings
Agricultural crops specifically planted for wildlife in fields or small forest openings and sometimes referred to as food plots.
Wildlife, Nonconsumptive
Unharvested wildlife valuable for observation, education, enjoyment, and for its place in the wildlife community.
Wildlife Structure
A site specific improvement of a wildlife or fish habitat, e.g., spring development or dugout to provide water, brushpile for cover, nestbox for birds, or rock and log placement in a stream for fish cover and pool creation.
Wildlife Travel Corridor
Forested areas or other established vegetation used as travel lanes or buffer zones to connect larger stands of suitable wildlife habitat or prevent isolation of important foraging and nesting areas.
Wildlife Tree
A standing dead or living tree larger than 6 inches in diameter at breast height. They may be relatively small trees and of good vigor to provide future wildlife trees in stands being regenerated today.
Willingness-to-pay
An economic concept used either in non-market good valuation or when the prevailing price of a good or service is thought to be different from its true value to an individual or society. It refers to the price an individual would be willing to pay rather than be deprived of the good or service (rather than to "go without it"). Indications of willingness to pay may be obtained directly by questionnaires or indirectly by studies of payments for similar items in similar circumstances, or of related costs, such as transportation, paid to get to point of use. Validity and applicability of "willingness-to-pay" is dependent on who is assigned initial ownership rights to the good or service being evaluated.
Windbreak
A wind barrier of living trees and shrubs maintained for the purpose of protecting the farm home, other buildings, garden, orchard, or feedlots.
Windfirm
Trees able to withstand strong winds, i.e., able to withstand the force of wind without being uprooted (e.g., windthrown).
Windrow
Slash, residue and debris raked together into piles or rows. Also the verb, to create the row.
Windthrow (Blow Down)
(1)The tendency to be uprooted by the wind. Also, a tree or trees uprooted. Trees tend to develop root systems to support themselves against the forces they face. When either logging creates a new forest edge or selected trees from a group are removed the remaining trees may face a significant increase in the force of the wind. The trees growing on the edge of a forest tend to shelter the interior trees, and trees in a group protect each other from the full force of the wind. If the remaining trees do not have root systems capable of absorbing this additional stress, they will be blown down.(2)A tree blown over.
Winter Annual Grasses
Grasses that must be replanted each fall or winter. These plantings mainly provide winter forage for deer, turkeys, rabbits, and geese while they are growing but can provide seeds for birds when they mature (examples; wheat, rye).
Winter Perennial Grasses
Grasses that do not need to be replanted each fall or winter. These plantings also provide winter forage for wildlife (examples: perennial ryegrass and orchard grass).
Winter Range
The area, usually at lower elevations, used by elk and other migratory and semi-migratory animals during the winter months.
Withdrawn Lands
Areas where action has been taken by an authority to withdraw centain lands, usually public, from uses otherwise permitted under land use or mining regulations and laws.
Wolf Tree
A tree which occupies more space in the forest than its value justifies. Usually a tree which is older, larger, or more branchy than other trees in the stand.
Wooden Dollar Bib
In forestry, bids above the minimum bid price but less than the sum of purchaser credits plus base rates, so-called because they do not require the purchaser to pay any more actual cash for the timber.
Woodland
Land used primarily for the production of adapted wood crops and to provide tree cover for watershed protection, beautification, etc. Does not include farmstead and field windbreak plantings.
Woody Plants
Plants which live longer than two years and have a thick, tough stem or trunk covered with a layer of cork.
Woody Pulp
Mechanically ground or chemically digested wood (composed primarily of wood fiber) which is used in the manufacture of paper, fiberboard, etc.
Working Circle
A forest area organized for a particular objective and under one set of working plan prescriptions, and embodying one silvicultural system or a designed combination of systems.
Working Group
Those parts of a working circle that have the same general management prescriptions. This Designation may be applied to combinations of species, types, or sites, such as pine and hardwood working groups, mixed conifer and Douglas-fir working groups, and site I-III and site IV-V working groups in some working circles. A working group is set up for areas where timber management is to be modified, such as in landscape management areas.
WRSIC
Water Resources Scientific Information Center. A part of the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior. WRSIC maintains "Selected Water Resources Abstracts" database, and is a computerized bibliographic information retrieval facility covering literature in 10 pre-defined fields of water resources. Its purpose is to ensure the availability of current scientific and technical information to researchers, managers, and other users in the water resources community.


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