Glossary

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S

Sacrifice Area
A relatively small area of land irrespective of site in a grazing unit that may still be over-used after practical measures for securing uniform grazing distribution have been installed.

Sacrifice Site
A range site that is intentionally overgrazed to obtain efficient overall use of the management area.
Sale Schedule
The quantity of timber planned for sale by time period, from the area of suitable land covered by a Forest plan. The first period, usually a decade, of the selected sale schedule provides the allowable sale quantity. Future periods are shown to establish that long-term sustained yield will be achieved and maintained. (36 CFR 219.3)
Sale-area Betterment
Improvements in a forest that can be funded by K-V deposits.
Salvage
Dead or dying trees that occur in excess of those needed for wildlife, aesthetics, or other purposes. These trees are harvested for Production.
Salvage Cutting
Cutting primarily to utilize dead, deteriorating, and downed material and scattered poor-risk trees that will not be merchantable if left in the stand until the next scheduled cut.
Salvage Harvest of Timber
The removal of dead trees or trees being damaged or killed by injurious agents other than competition, to recover value that would otherwise be lost.(USFS 1999)
Sample, Random
A sample taken without bias from an area or from a population in which every part of the area or population has an equal chance of being taken.
Sand
Inorganic particles between 0.05 (and 1/16) and 2.0 millimeters in diameter. Also soil that contains 85 percent or more sand and a percentage of silt plus 1.5 times the percentage of clay that does not exceed 15.
Sanitary Landfill
A site where solid waste materials are disposed of on land, supposedly in a manner that prevents their escape into -- or pollution of-the surrounding environment. The waste is spread in layers, then compacted to the smallest practical volume and covered with compacted soil at the end of each working day.
Sanitation Harvest of Timber
The removal of trees to improve-stand health and to reduce actual or anticipated spread of insects and disease.(USFS 1999)
Sanitation Cutting (Salvage)
Sanitation cutting is removing and exploiting dead, dying, deteriorating, or susceptible trees to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene. The recovery of trees materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies before their timber becomes commercially valueless.
Sapling
A loose term for a young tree greater than a few feet tall and an inch or so in diameter at breast height and typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch. Many countries set arbitrary size limits e.g., 2 to 4 inches diameter at breast height in the United States. As used in timber survey, a size-class definition; trees 1.0 to 4.9 inches at DBH.
Satisficing
A method of choosing among alternatives. Minimum values or quality standards are established for all attributes affected by the alternatives. All those alternatives that do not meet the minimum requirements are eliminated from consideration. By successively raising the minimum requirements you can successively reduce the number of alternatives under consideration.
Sawtimber
As used in timber survey, a size class definition, trees larger than 9 inches at dbh.
Scale
The proportional relationship (ratio) between the reduced size at which something is being represented on a map or other type of drawing and its true distance or size relationships. In aesthetics, a feeling for the size and/or appropriateness of the size of some construction element (i.e., a building, paved area, etc.) or project.
Scaling
In forestry, measuring the volume of logs.
Scarification
Loosening the top soil in open areas to prepare for regeneration by direct seeding or natural seed fall.
Scenario
A word picture of an hypothetical sequence of future events constructed for the purpose of focusing attention on causal processes and decision points. "Scenarios" may express a series of integrated objectives for preserving the environment, the fulfillment of which is dependent upon timing as an "urgency" rather than as a "sequence". For example, some strategic natural areas that may be shown on scenarios actually exist on the ground today, but will not be found anywhere in the year 2000 unless they are reserved now.
Scenery Management System
An overall framework for the orderly inventory, analysis, and management of scenery (FSM 2382).
Scenic Area
A place Designated (such as cliffs, streams, vistas, vegetation, and wildlife) as containing outstanding or matchless beauty which requires special management to preserve these qualities.
Scenic Corridor
The visible land area outside the highway right-of-way and generally described as "the view from the road".
Scenic River
Rivers or sections of rivers that are free of impoundments, with shorelines or watersheds still largely primitive and shorelines largely undeveloped, but accessible in places by roads.
Scenic Vista
A point along a route of travel that affords a panoramic, unusual, or highly-pleasant view.
Schema
The complete list of all data base component numbers and names, and their Key or Non-key Designation, item type, and field length. Also includes all Strings and Stored Functions.
Schema Entry
All the data at all levels stored for one of the major items in a database.
Schema Family
Those schema records vertically related as one single branch of the schema.
Schema Record
A group of components related to the same subject that may have multiple occurrences of data.
Science
For the purposes of US FS planning (2005), "science" is the knowledge, information, concepts, and theories based on organized systems of facts that have been learned from study, observation, and experience. See below.
Science Consistency Review
A process to determine whether scientific information of appropriate content, rigor, and applicability has been considered, evaluated, and synthesized in the documents that underlie the land management plan approval. The science consistency review does not advise the decisionmaker for or against a particular course of action.
Scope and Scale
Scope usually refers to the breadth, extent, or depth of an issue, such as whether it refers to one or multiple resources, ecosystems, or species. Scale usually refers to geographic scale, such as an ecosystem, landscape, or eco-region.
Screening
Topographic or vegetative features that block, cover, or obscure views of human activity, past or present, or of other persons.
Screen Record
Information about openings that permit water to enter a well, including perforations and uncased sections of the aquifer.
Seasonal Use Road
Facilities developed and operated for only seasonal use because of climatic, structural or administrative limitations.
Second Growth
Forest growth that has come up naturally after some drastic interference (e.g., wholesale cutting, serious fire, or insect attack) with the previous forest crop.
Secondary Productivity
The rate at which organic matter is produced by the heterotrophic organisms of a community.
Secondary Range
Range that is lightly used or unused by livestock under minimal management and will ordinarily not be fully used until the primary range has been overused.
Secondary Use (Accessory Use)
A use that is incidental, related, appropriate, and clearly subordinate to the main use of an area, lot, or building. An accessory use does not alter the principal use or properties of the area.
Secondary Wastewater Treatment
Any process that takes the effluent from primary wastewater treatment and reduces the suspended solids and biological oxygen demand by approximately 90 percent. During secondary treatment, the wastewater is subject to biochemical action, increased sedimentation, and clarification.
Security
The protection inherent in any situation that allows elk to remain in a defined area despite an increase in stress or disturbance associated with the hunting season or other human activities. A state of being or a condition. The components of security may include, but are not limited to, vegetation, topography, area, road density, distance from roads, size of vegetation blocks, hunter density, season timing, and land ownership. Hiding cover is site specific, while security is area specific.
Security Area
Any area that will hold elk during periods of stress because of geography, topography, vegetation, or a combination of those features, more meaningful than security habitat.
Sediment
Solid materials, both mineral and organic, that is in suspension, is being transported, or has been moved from its site of origin by air, water, gravity, or ice that has come to rest on the Earth's surface either above or below sea level.
Sediment Delivery Ratio
The fraction of the soil eroded from upland sources that actually reaches a continuous stream channel or storage reservoir.
Sediment Discharge
The quantity of sediment, measured in dry weight or by volume, transported through a stream cross section in a given time. Sediment discharge consists of both suspended load and bedload.
Sediment Yield
The quantity of sediment, measured in dry weight or by volume, transported through a stream cross-section in a given time.
Seed, Certified
Seed for a named variety of plant (blue tag). Seed of a plant species for which there are no released varieties (or there are ecotypes of interest that are distinctly different from any released varieties). These may be obtained as "Certified." Foundation Seed (white tag) and Registered Seed (purple tag) - Seed used by seed growers to produce certified seed. It has been field inspected and laboratory tested to ensure varietal identity, genetic purity, high seed purity and germination, and limited amounts of other crop seeds, weed seed, inert matter, and diseased or insect-damaged seed. Source Identified Class - This is also "certified" seed. It is seed for which there has been verification by a see certification agency about the state, county, and elevation from which the seed lot was collected (yellow tag). Selected Class - Seed of an ecotype or germplasm that has been compared with other ecotypes or germplasm selection of a species and shown to have unique characteristics (green tag). Tested Class - Seed of an ecotype or germplasm selection that has been selected and also progeny tested to prove that unique traits are heritable (blue tag).
Seed Cut
See Shelterwood Cut.
Seed Tree
A tree purposely left standing at the time of cutting in a forest, for the purpose of producing seed for regeneration of trees in the cutover area.
Seed Tree Cutting (Seed Cutting)
Removal in one cut of the mature timber from an area, except for a small number of seed bearers left singly or in small groups. A regeneration cutting where the planned source of an adequate new stand is from seed existing on, or to be produced by, trees standing on the cut-over area.
Seed Tree Removal Cutting
Cutting made to remove the seed trees when adequate reproduction above browse height has been established.
Seedbed
In natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor in which seed falls. In nursery practices, prepared area that is seeded.
Seedling
As used in timber survey, a size class definition, trees less than one inch at DBH.
Seismic
Pertaining to or caused by an earthquake.
Seismic Hazards
Hazards related to earthquake activity.
Selection Cut
The periodic removal of mature trees, individually or in small groups from an uneven-aged forest. By this method both regeneration cutting and tending of immature stand components are accomplished at each entry.
Selection Harvest Cut
A system that removes trees individually in a scattered pattern from a large area each year. (1) Individual tree selection cutting involves the removal of selected trees of all size classes on an individual basis. Regeneration is established under the partial shade of the overstory canopy after each cut. (2) Group selection cutting involves the removal of selected trees of all size classes and groups of a fraction of an acre of to 2 to 3 acres in size. Regeneration occurs in the groups under conditions similar to those found in small clearcuts.
Selection Logging (Selection Cutting)
Regeneration cut designed to create and perpetuate an uneven-aged stand. Removal of mature timber, usually the oldest or largest trees, either as single scattered trees or small groups at relatively short intervals, commonly 5 to 20 years, repeated indefinitely, by means of which the continuous establishment of natural reproduction is encouraged and an uneven-aged stand is maintained.
Selection System
An uneven-aged silvicultural system in which trees are removed individually, here and there, from a large area each year. Regeneration is mainly natural and the timber crop is ideally of all different ages.
Selective Herbicide
An herbicide which is effective only against centain species and is able to control unwanted plants without serious injury to desirable species.
Selectivity
The degree to which a plant or plant part is removed differently from that which is expected by random removal. Selectivity is expressed as the ratio of the proportion of a plant or plant part in a diet to all the other herbage.
Self-Service Level
A level of recreation operations, administration, and maintenance under which mandated health and safety tasks are performed. Visitors are expected to help maintain areas in a clean condition and to serve themselves.
Self-Sustaining Populations
Populations that are sufficiently abundant, interacting, and well-distributed in the plan area, within the bounds of their life history and distribution of the species and the capability of the landscape, to provide for their long-term persistence, resilience, and adaptability over multiple generations.
Semi-Primitive Motorized ROS Class
A classification of the recreation opportunity spectrum characterized by a predominantly unmodified natural environment in a location that provides good to moderate isolation from sights and sounds of people, but allows use of motorized equipment. See Recreation Opportunity Spectrum.
Semi-Primitive Non-Motorized ROS Class
A classification of the recreation opportunity spectrum characterized by a predominately unmodified natural environment of a size and location that provides good to moderate opportunity for isolation from sights and sounds of people. No motorized equipment is allowed. See Recreation Opportunity Spectrum.
Senior Community Service Employment Program
A human resource program that utilizes the skills and talents of older workers in management.
Sense of Scale
A feeling for the size and/or appropriateness of the size of some project or construction element (i.e., building, paved area, etc.). An evaluation of the sense of appropriate of the size (or mass) relationship of some design material, element, or object to its surroundings, its intended use or user group, etc. For example, the use of brick as a building material is sometimes said to result in constructions of a "human scale"-- because people have a strongly developed awareness of the size of individual bricks, and therefore, can sense the size of buildings or paved areas by using the individual brick as the basis of judgement. In contrast, because concrete can be poured into almost any size units, people can have difficulty correctly judging the size of objects made out of concrete. In a similar sense, entire large high-rise (i.e., multi-storied) buildings may be described as being out-of-scale when placed in surroundings dominated by 2- or 3-story buildings.
Sensitive Areas
Areas of high erosion hazard, areas that may be susceptible to compaction, or areas of unstable slopes.
Sensitive Species
Species identified by criteria below what are known, reported, or suspected to occur on or in the immediate vicinity. The criteria are: (1) Species undergoing placement on an official list; (2) Species placed on an agency list because they require special management attention. Examples: (a) Species common elsewhere, but a disjunct population of unique, popular, or scientific interest. (b) Locally endemic population in unique habitats that warrant continued monitoring or special management to assure jeopardy is not occurring and will not occur in the future.(3)Those species identified as sensitive under the Forest Service's sensitive species program, currently set out in the Forest Service Manual, Chapter 2670.(USFS 1999)
Sensitivity Analysis
Determination the consequences of varying the level of one or more of several factors while holding other factors constant. Varying the value of a parameter to find the extent to which the change affect the results of the analysis. If a small change in an assumption results in a proportionately greater change in the results, then the results are said to be "sensitive" to that assumption or parameter.
Sensitivity, Land
The degree to which the land cannot sustain or heal itself from externally imposed disturbance or land uses.
Sensitivity Level
As used in Visual Quality Management; a particular degree or measure of viewer interest in the scenic qualities of the landscape. 1 - most sensitive, 2- sensitive, and 3 - less sensitive; an index to beauty based on criteria having factors affecting landscape aesthetics.
Seral
Of or about the series of stages in ecological or plant succession.
Seral Habitat
A biotic community that is a developmental, transitory stage in an ecological succession.
Seral Stage
A recognizable step or stage in the development of ecological communities. Developmental temporary communities in a sere; not fixed.
Sere
A developmental series of communities a chain of seral stages containing the initial (pioneer), one or more transitional stages, and a single (often hypothetical) climax stage.
Servient
The land against which an easement or privilege exists is called the "servient" tenement and the estate to which it is annexed is the dominant tenement. Their owners are respectively the servient and dominant owners.
Shade Intolerant
Those tree species that need full or near full sunlight to regenerate and grow.
Shade Strip
A strip of vegetation along the edge of surface waters requiring special management to protect the surface waters from adverse impacts from solar radiation.
Shade Tolerant
Relative ability of a tree species to reproduce and grow under shade. Tree species are usually classified in descending order of shade tolerance as: very tolerant, tolerant, intermediate, intolerant, and very intolerant.
Sheet Erosion
Removal of a fairly uniform layer of soil from the land surface by runoff water, without the development of conspicuous water channels.
Shelterbelt
A wind barrier of living trees and shrubs maintained for the purpose of protecting farm fields. As applied to individual farmsteads, termed a windbreak.
Shelterwood Cut
Removal of the mature timber in a series of cutting over a period of years to encourage natural reproduction under a partial cover of seed trees. About half-shade or more on the ground is retained; grass and brush competition is thereby suppressed.
Shelterwood Cutting
A cutting method used in even-aged management. It is the removal of a stand of trees through a series of cuttings designed to establish a new crop with seed and protection provided by a portion of the stands.
Shelterwood Method
A regeneration method under an even-aged silvicultural system under which a portion of the mature stand is retained as a source of seed or protection during the period of regeneration. The mature stand is removed in two or more cuttings commonly termed seed cutting and removal cutting. The seed cutting may or may not be preceded by a preparatory cutting.
Shelterwood System -
Even-aged silvicultural systems in which (in order to provide a source of seed and/or protection for regeneration) the old crop is removed in two or more successive "shelterwood cuttings", the first of which is ordinarily the seed tree cutting and the last is the final cutting, any intervening cuttings being termed removal cuttings.
Short-Term Effects
Those effects that will usually occur within the 20 years after an action.
Short-Term Facility (Road)
A facility developed and operated for a limited period of time which will cease to exist as a transportation facility after the purpose for which it was constructed is completed, and the occupied land is reclaimed and managed for natural resource purposes.
Short-range Planning
Planning for a future 5 years or less distant.
Shrink-Swell Clays
Clays that swell when moisture increases, and shrink when moisture decreases.
Shrink-Swell Potential
The probability and extent of a soil's volume to change due to loss or gain in moisture content.
Shrub
A low-growing perennial plant with a persistent woody stem and low branching habit.
Sight Distance
The distance at which 90 percent or more of an adult big game animal (elk) is hidden from human view. Measures of the effectiveness of hiding cover.
Significance, Statistical
An effect is said to be statistically significant if the value of the statistic used to test it lies outside acceptable limits, that is to say, if the hypothesis that the effect is not present is rejected. A test of significance is one which, by using a test statistic, purports to provide a test of the hypothesis that the effect is absent. By extension, the critical values of the statistics are themselves called significant.
Silt
Fragments of rock or organic matter sediment most of the individual particles of which are between 1/16 and 1/256 millimeters (0.05 and 0.002 millimeters) in diameter. A soil texture type consisting of 80 percent or more of silt particles and less than 12 percent clay particles.
Silt Trap
A physical barrier installed between a disturbed area and an area to be protected that filters suspended sediment from surface runoff.
Silvics
The science which deals with the laws underlying the growth and development of single trees and of the forest as a biological unit.
Silvicultural Prescription
A statement following an examination of a compartment usually done at least once every 10 years to determine management needs of the timber. It includes actions to be taken based on soils, wildlife needs, silvics of each species, ownership patterns, engineering needs, and goals and objectives of the organization.
Silvicultural System
A management process whereby forests are tended, harvested, and replaced, resulting in a forest of distinctive form. Systems are classified according to the method of carrying out the fellings that remove the mature crop and provide for regeneration and according to the type of forest thereby produced.
Silviculture
The science and art of cultivating (i.e., growing and tending) forest vegetation. More particularly, the theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, constitution, and growth of forest crops. The application of the knowledge of silvics in treating a forest.
Simulation
(1) The imitative representation of the functioning of one system or process by means of the functioning of another. A mathematical or computer model of an ecosystem. Examinations of a problem, often not subject to direct experimentation, by means of a simulating device. (2) A technique for solving complex problems that is not amenable to solution using formal analytical techniques. Essentially simulation consists of a representation of a system or organization by means of a model. The behavior of the system under various possible operational conditions or assumptions is then analyzed through repeated manipulation of the model.
Single Tree Selection Cutting
The cutting method that describes the silvicultural system in which trees are removed individually, here and there, over an entire forest or stand. The resultant stand usually regenerates naturally and becomes unevenaged.
Sink
In pollution terminology, any location where wastes are or ultimately become deposited, e.g., in underground burial places, in underwater deposits, in ocean water.
Sinkhole
A depression in the landscape formed by the collapse of the land surface below which limestone has been dissolved. Karst topography has many sinkholes.
Site
A plot of land intended or suitable for development or an area considered in terms of its environment (biological, climatic and soil factors present), particularly as this determines the type and quality of the vegetation the area can inherently produce. "Sites" are classified either qualitatively, by their climate, soil and vegetation, into site types, or quantitatively, by their potential wood production, into site classes.
Site Capacity
The number of persons who may, at one time, use the developed capacity (i.e., facility carrying capacity) of a location while not exceeding the safe, season long carrying capacity (i.e., ecological carrying capacity) per acre.
Site Class (Locality Class, Productivity Class, Quality Class, Growth Class, Yield Class)
A quantitative measure of the productive capacity of an area which is essentially uniform with respect to those factors controlling productivity for the crop or stand understudy. The quantitative measure is based on the volume, height, or maximum mean annual increment of dominant types that is attained or attainable on that area at a given crop age.
Site Index
A numerical evaluation of the quality of land for plant productivity, especially used in forest land where it is determined by the height on one or more of the tree species, usually at 50 years.
Site Plan
A plan, prepared to scale, showing accurately and with complete dimensioning, all of the buildings, structures and uses and the exact manner of development proposed for a specific parcel of land.
Site Planning (Site Design)
Organizing the external physical environment up to the largest scale at which it can still be subject to unified and complete control. It deals with structures, land and the entire complex of physical forms above, below and on the surface. It has at its heart the disposition of objects and activities in 3-dimensional space. It begins with the careful analysis of the project site and purpose; and, it concludes with design of a pattern which interacts as a totality with its users, and which is subject to continuous future development and change. "Site planning" produces plans that can be carried out in one continuous foreseeable process, according to one original design, under the control of one agency, inclusive of all details of site engineering, landscaping, and architecture. "Site planning" may take place on areas as small as a single building and its grounds, or as large as the layout of a complete small town.
Site Preparation
Preparing a regenerated stand by hand or mechanical methods or prescribed burns or herbicides to stimulate the establishment and growth of a new timber stand. Purpose is to control vegetation that would compete with new growth. It involves the removal of residual trees left after a commercial harvest and preparation of seedbeds. Mechanical methods include use of a crawler tractor with a KG blade that shears vegetation near ground level. Hand methods include use of ax and chainsaw, or tree injectors.
Site Specific
Something only valid for, or confined to, a certain given parcel of land and/or water. The term may apply to data, studies to obtain information, environmental impacts, use restrictions, etc. The assumption is that mapped land characteristics are, in varying degrees, generalizations about a true distribution of characteristics. Such generalizations cannot be assumed valid for every parcel of land contained within the larger mapped units. "Site specific" studies may be needed to confirm or change the appropriate land use classification of a particular parcel.
Site Type
A biotic productivity unit (usually for trees) which is qualitatively defined on the basis of being relatively uniform with respect to climate, soil and natural vegetation cover.
Skid Road or Trail
Travelway used to drag or transport trees from the stump to a landing.
Skidding
A loosely used term for transporting logs from stumps to a collecting point by sliding or dragging along the ground-as opposed to the use of wheels, helicopters, balloons, cables, etc., to keep them totally off the ground. The logs may slide more or less wholly along the ground or with their forward end supported. The method of skidding can greatly affect the impact of logging on soil and the residual stand.
Skyline Logging
See Logging, Skyline.
Skyline Yarding
See Yarding, Skyline.
Slab
The exterior portion of a log removed during the sawing process.
Slash
The residue or debris left on the ground after timber cutting, pruning, thinning, or brush cutting and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire or other damage. It includes unutilized logs, up-rooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems, branches, twigs, leaves, bark, and chips.
Slash Disposal
Treatment of slash to reduce the fire hazard or for other purposes.
Slip
A mass of spoil material that moves downward and outward to a lower elevation due to the force of gravity, generally caused by over loading of the downslope, freezing and thawing, or saturation of the fill.
Slope (Grade)
The inclination of a stream channel or ground surface, usually expressed in terms of the ratio or percentage of number of units of vertical rise or fall per unit of horizontal distance. An increase of 1 foot over a distance of 5 feet is expressed as a 20 percent slope. The slope of a terrestrial surface is an important factor in erosion potential and interacts with aspect to influence basic rates of evapotranspiration.
Slope Orientation (Aspect, Exposure)
The compass direction toward which the slope of a land surface faces (e.g., north, and northwest)(the direction downhill). Giles et al. recommended 2 types of orientation, those N/S and those East/West, since each has very different ecological influences.
Slope Stability (Mass Instability)
An evaluation (almost always qualitative and expressed as a probability) of the tendency for the materials on or constituting a slope (e.g., rocks, soil, snow) to either remain in place or to move downhill.
Slope Stability
The resistance of any inclined surface, as the wall of an open or cut, to failure by sliding or collapsing.
Slope Steepness (Slope, Slope Gradient, Slope Inclination)
The degree of deviation of a land surface from the horizontal usually expressed in percent (i.e., amount of elevation change per 100 feet, expressed as a percentage) or degrees. A 45-degree slope is a 100 percent slope.
Slurry
Refuse separated from the coal in the coal cleaning process of relatively small size which is readily pumpable in the washing plant effluent. A pulverized coal-liquid mixture transported pipeline.
SMSA
See Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Snag
A standing dead tree (20 or more feet tall and over 4 inches DBH) potentially or actually used by birds and other animals for nesting, roosting, perching, breeding and/or foraging for food.
SNOTEL
Snowpack Telemetry System. An automated hydrometeorological data acquisition system of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.
Snow Avalanche
The rapid downslope movement of large quantities of snow.
Snow Avalanche Hazard (Snowslide Hazard)
Some evaluation (almost always qualitative and relative to adjacent locations) of the probability that a snow avalanche will occur on a given site.
Sociability
The distribution of organisms in relation to one another as individuals or as groups within a community. J. Braun-Blanquet recognizes five classes of sociability, ranging from isolated individuals to dense masses. Social activity marked by a feeling of unity but also by individual participation completely willing and not forced or coerced and without a loss of individuality.
Social Analysis
An analysis of the social (as distinct from the economic and environmental) effects of a given plan or proposal for action. Social analysis includes identifying and evaluating of all pertinent desirable and undesirable consequences to all segments of society, stated in some comparable quantitative terms such as persons or per cent of population in each affected social segment. It also includes a subjective analysis of social factors not expressible in quantitative terms. It may include effects on life styles, the political process, education, health care, housing, distributions of power and income, and the quality of public services. Procedures include: questionnaire design, distribution and retrieval; conducting polls; holding public hearings; forming ad hoc task forces and advisory groups; and conducting behavioral studies.
Social and Economic Elements
The variety of tangible and intangible uses, values, products, services, opportunities, and benefits provided by National Forest System lands.
Social Benefits
The net benefit considerations of long-range societal values at the regional or national level that might not be taken into account in the profit and loss statement of an individual farmer, forest operator, industrialist or other private citizen. Exclusive of corporations, profits and losses appear in the statement of single individuals. Also, the non-monetary and rarely quantifiable returns to society arising from any form of economic activity e.g., those recreational benefits resulting from the creation of a scenic over look.
Social Class
People who have been grouped together on the basis of one or more common characteristics. The characteristics can usually be viewed as hierarchical.
Social Costs
The net losses of long-range societal values at the regional or national level that might not be taken into account in the profit and loss statement of an individual farmer, forest operator, industrialist or other private citizen. Note: individual not corporate emphasis. These are the non-monetary and rarely quantifiable losses to society arising from any form of economic activity-- e.g., from air pollution whose only deleterious side effect is reduced visibility, over and above the expenditures for the goods and services causing the smoke.
Social Determinism (Social Primacy)
A point of view in planning that advocates that the primary basis for making use and allocation decisions should be satisfaction of current societal demands on resources. The ability of the resource base to sustain such demanded use levels over the longrun is not recognized as an important criterion for decision making by the social primist. Thus is grounded in the belief that human behavior is produced by conditions in the social world. Social Determinism (continued) - In this view, when a person is born, he or she is essentially unmarked, a clean surface. Potentials for good or evil, success or failure, etc. will be decided by the social environment, which is formed by family, friends, work associates, and overlaying all of these groups, the culture.
Social Distance
The physical distance apart maintained by animals and persons based on the social situation and culture. Also, people are conscious of having a certain "place" in a social hierarchy and, they are conscious of the places of others. The differences between the respective places are "social distance". For example, the perceived social distance between a physician and a garbage collector will probably be greater than that between the physician and a lawyer. Occupational status is only one component of "social distance"; others will be relevant to the situation in which the individuals find them selves. For example, on a ski slope, occupation may mean little and skiing ability may be the essential determinant of social distance. Social distance will also vary with the extent to which the two people know each other. On first encounter the determinants of social distance will include appearance, mode of self-introduction, and attributes of social status such as occupational prestige. As the relationship develops, these factors may become less important, and others, such as intelligence, will enter into determining social distance.
Social Dynamics
The changes in people resulting from forces and processes. The processes of interaction leading to change may involve economic, political, ideological, individual, or other variables. Some theorists see this dynamic as a dialectical one, involving a succession of conflicts and their resolutions. Others see the dynamic as a developmental, cumulative process in which conflict is merely incidental.
Social Equity
The distribution of the gains and losses that will accrue to individuals or groups (defined according to social criteria), as a consequence of land use planning decisions, in a manner which is in reasonable conformity to accepted standards of natural rights, law and justice, without prejudice, favoritism or fraud and without causing undue hardship.
Social Inequality
A condition in which various members of a society have unequal amounts of income, prestige, and social power.
Social Mobility
The upward or downward movement of individuals or groups into different positions in a social hierarchy based on wealth, income, occupation, education, social power, or any other scarce social resources. A society with a high rate of social mobility and good opportunities for upward social mobility is not egalitarian but may maximize opportunities for one individual or group to get more of society's scarce resources than other individuals or groups can get.
Social Mores
The fixed customs or folkways of a particular social group that are morally binding upon all members of the group and seem necessary to its welfare and preservation.
Social Norms
The shared expectations of a social group or society. The concept assumes a relationship between the perceptions of shared expectations by members of the social group and the extent to which the norm influences behavior. To the degree to which human behavior is influenced by the normative content of the culture of one's society, such behavior might be explained in terms of the collective expectations as perceived, shared, and enforced by the group. Normative variations exist even in a relatively stable culture. These variations are due to the generalized nature of norms relative to specific social situations and to the variations in their perception and interpretation by individuals. Moreover, in societies such as the United States, where structure manifest subcultural variations, ambiguities and variations concerning the meaning of norms are to be expected. Norms are external to the individual to the extent that normative definitions exist in the reality defined by a particular culture. Such cultures may preexist his or her being. There is a hierarchy of such definitions of "right and wrong". These are traditionally identified as "folkways", mores, and laws.
Social Power
The extent to which a person can impose their will on a group. That is a person has power when he gets the members of a group to do what he or she wants, regardless of what they want.
Social Prestige
The respect or favorable regard enjoyed by individuals or groups and linked to the social status accorded to these individuals or groups. Prestige is frequently, but not necessarily, the result of the possession of power or wealth.
Social Role
Generally, a role consists of those behaviors typically performed by an individual in a particular situation. The individual's assumption of a role implies his or her acceptance of the need to act in ways that are socially agreed upon as being appropriate in that situation. A status generally refers to an institutionalized role. Thus, statuses often involve occupational or kinship systems, e.g., physician, lawyer, factory worker, or father, mother, uncle. Whereas the physician, by virtue of his or her profession, enjoys a certain "status", his or her "role" in any situation will be more fluid.
Social Status
A position based on prestige and life style. Status group members share these characteristics to a similar degree. It is often useful to consider a society's status hierarchy independently from its social class hierarchy that is based largely on economic position. Status frequently derives from class position, but it may be achieved independently of economic standing.
Social Well-being
One of the four "required accounts" for U.S. Water Resources Council (WRC) categorizing, displaying, or "accounting" the beneficial and adverse effects of each alternative plan formulation for water and related land resources planning. The "social well-being" account includes (at least): (1) real income distribution among individuals, classes, and groups; (2) life, health, and safety; (3) educational, cultural, and recreational opportunities; and (4) emergency preparedness.
Soft Mast
Soft fleshy fruits potentially eaten by wildlife (examples: persimmon, wild grapes, blackberries, blueberries, huckleberries, mulberries, plums, autumn olive, and crabapples).
Software
Written programming instructions, system, etc., for a computer, as distinguished from the physical components (hardware) of the computer itself.
Softwood
A coniferous tree, one belonging to the botanical group gymnospermae; trees that in most cases have needle or scale-like leaves; also, the wood produced by such trees.
Soil
(1) The loose top layer of the Earth, usually consisting of disintegrated rock with an admixture of organic matter and soluble salts, dynamic in nature, and serving as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. It differs from the material from which it is derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics. It usually only extends to the depth important for plant growth, the depth to root growth limiting material or 60 inch whichever is encountered first. Spatially, engineers recognize that there is an ungeneralizable, infinite variety of soils, each with slightly differing physical characteristics, the regolith. Agricultural soil scientist believes that "soils" can be mapped as significantly homogeneous, discrete units, i.e., soil types. It includes the surface soil (horizon A), the subsoil (horizon B) and the upper portion of the substratum (horizon C) to the extent that it is penetrated by plant and tree roots. The average soil is composed of 45% mineral, 25% air, 25%- water and 5% vegetation. (2) Surface layer of the Earth, ranging in thickness from a few inches to several feet, composed of finely divided rock debris mixed with decomposing vegetative and animal matter which is capable of supporting plant growth. (3) The mineral substrate plus the living and dead organic material within it. The biotope may be, in part, soil. Soil may be geochemically separated through time.
Soil and Water Mitigation
Measures applied that significantly reduce the amount of potential soil erosion and sedimentation from resource management activities.
Soil Association
A group of defined and named soil taxonomic units occurring together in an individual and characteristic pattern over a geographic region.
Soil Climate
The moisture and temperature conditions existing within the soil. The soil has a microclimate that is the environment of the organisms that live within the soil.
Soil Compaction
Reduction of soil pore space volume (porosity) which results in alteration of the soil chemical and physical properties. The "bulk density" increases with compaction.
Soil Complex
A mapping unit used in detailed soil surveys where two or more defined taxonomic units are so intimately intermixed geographically that it is undesirable or impractical to separate them. The complex is a more intimate mixing of smaller areas of individual taxonomic units than the soil association.
Soil Condition Class
A reference to soil stability based principally on the amount of ground cover weighted by the degree of accelerated erosion.
Soil Enhancement
Adding lime and/or fertilizer to low productive soils in order to increase the production of market goods, plant health, and quality as forage.
Soil Fertility
The quality of a soil that enables it to provide nutrients in adequate amounts and in proper balance for the growth of specified plants.
Soil Horizon
A layer of soil that differs in composition, color, or structure, or in both, from adjacent layers. A diagram representing a vertical section of the soil called a profile generally describes the various horizons in a soil. The horizons in a soil profile are Designated as follows: A-horizon, topsoil; B-horizon, mineral soil; and C-horizon, parent soil material, weathered or unweathered rock fragments and minerals. Between any of the above horizons may be found a waterlogged or "gley" horizon, formed by the influence of ground water and marked by the presence of iron and other reduced compounds, alkaline salts, or aluminum oxides. A layer under the C-horizon that is unlike the parent material may be indicated as a D-horizon on a soil profile. The A, B, and C-horizons are quite distinct in mature soils, developed under forest vegetation in temperate and humid climates. These are called "zonal soils". Soils in which the horizons are undistinguished are called "azonal." Where the horizons do not fall into the above pattern or some horizons are absent, the soils are called "intrazonal."
Soil Improvement
Reshaping, liming, fertilizing, and revegetating of soils to improve the watershed condition and other renewable resources.
Soil Loss Equation (Universal Soil Loss Equation)
A = RKLSPC wherein A = average annual soil loss in tons per acre per year, R= rainfall factor, K = soil erodibility factor, L = length of slope, S = percent of slope, P = conservation practice factor, and C = cropping and management factor. The equation as originally developed predicted soil losses from agricultural lands induced by rainfall. A recent revision takes into account the effect of snowmelt in areas where the contribution from this cause is significant.
Soil Map
A map that shows the location and extent of the different soils in an area. The following kinds of soil maps are recognized in the United States: "detailed", "detailed reconnaissance", "reconnaissance", "generalized", and "schematic".
Soil Map, Detailed Reconnaissance
A reconnaissance soil map on which some areas or features are shown in greater detail than usual, or than others.
Soil Map, Detailed
A soil map at a publication scale commonly of 2 inches = 1 mile on which soil types and soil phases are the main types of units delineated. The smallest unit size shown on such maps is about I 1/3 acres. Survey traverses are usually made at 1/4 mile or more frequent intervals. The unit boundaries on detailed soil maps should have been seen throughout their course and their placement on the map should be accurate to at least 50 to 100 feet. The maximum amount of unlike soil inclusions in mapped units is 15 percent.
Soil Map, General (Generalized Soil Map)
A soil map with a publication scale commonly of 1 inch - 1 mile on which soil associations and miscellaneous land types are the delineated units. The smallest unit size shown is about 3 1/2 acres. The maximum amount of unlike soil inclusions in such mapping units is 15 percent.
Soil Map, Reconnaissance
U.S.NRCS (Soil Conservation Service) usage. Referring to a soil map of highly variable publication scale (1 inch = 1 mile to 1 inch = 8 miles) and quality. The most detailed units commonly shown are miscellaneous land types and soil associations or one or more phases of soil families. The smallest unit that can be shown on such a soil map at a scale of 1 inch = 1 mile is about 3 1/2 acres and at 1 inch = 4 miles about 280 acres. Map unit boundaries are plotted where they cross field-survey traverses. Traverses are at intervals varying from about l/2 mile to several miles. Between these points of field observation most boundaries are sketched from the appearance of ground patterns on aerial photographs and the general appearance of the landscape.
Soil Mapping Unit
A kind of soil, a combination of kinds of soil, or miscellaneous land type or types, that can be shown at the scale of mapping for the defined purposes and objectives of the survey. Soil mapping units are the basis for delineating a soil survey map. Mapping units normally contain inclusions of soils outside the limits of the taxonomic name, or names, used as the name for the mapping unit. Mapping units are generally designed only to reflect significant differences in use and management.
Soil Moisture (Soil Water)
Water diffused in the soil immediately below the land surface (zone of aeration), from which water is discharged by transpiration in plants or by evaporation.
Soil Order
The category at the highest level of generalization in the soil classification system. The properties selected to distinguish the orders are reflections of the degree of soil horizon development and the kinds of horizons present.
Soil Phase
A subdivision of a soil taxonomic unit, usually a soil series or other unit of classification based on characteristics that affect the use and management of the soil but which do not vary sufficiently to differentiate it as a separate soil series. For example, a variation in a property or characteristic. such as degree of slope, degree of erosion, content of stones, texture of the surface, etc. Phases of soil series are the major components of the soil mapping units shown on detailed soil maps in the United States.
Soil Productivity
The capacity of a soil to produce a specific crop as limited by its physical, chemical, and biological condition, the parent material, topographic position, climate of the site, and prior land use history.
Soil Profile
The physical and chemical features of the soil imagined or seen in vertical section from its surface to the point at which the characteristics of the parent rock are not modified by surface weathering or soil processes such as leaching, oxidation, and accretion.
Soil Reaction
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil mass expressed in pH values or in words as follows:
  • extremely acid, below 4.5;
  • very strongly acid, 4.5-5.0;
  • strongly acid, 5.1-5.5;
  • medium acid, 5.6-6.0;
  • slightly acid, 6.1-6.5;
  • neutral, 6.6-7.3 (strictly 7.0);
  • mildly alkaline, 7.4-8.0;
  • strongly -alkaline, 8.l-9.0;
  • very strongly alkaline, over 9.1.
Soil Region
An area with approximately uniform soils. Fifty soil regions are recognized in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. They are correlated with the climatic provinces and plant growth regions. A map of these regions is included in "Native Plants of the United States" by William R. Van Dersal, U.S. Department of Agriculture, miscellaneous publication no. 303. 1964)
Soil Series
Soils which have similar soil profile characteristics (except for texture of the surface portion); and which are derived from similar parent materials are grouped together in a "soil series". A soil series is usually named for the locality where the typical soil was first recorded.
Soil Subgroup
Soil great groups are subdivided into subgroups that (1) show the central properties of the great group or (2) intergrade subgroups that show properties of more than one great group or (3) other subgroups for soils with atypical properties that are not characteristic of any great group.
Soil Survey (Soil Resource Inventory or SRI)
A general term for the systematic examination of soils in the field and in laboratories; their description and classification; the mapping of kinds of soil; the interpretation of soils according to their adaptability for various crops, grasses, and trees; their behavior under use or treatment for plant production or for other purposes; and their productivity under different management systems.
Soil Taxonomic Unit (Soil Taxon)
A unit comprising all soils that fall within the defined limits of a class at any categorical level in a system of soil classification.
Soil Texture
The relative proportions of the three individual particle-size classes (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) in a soil.
Soil Loss Tolerance (Permissible Soil Loss, T Factor)
The maximum average annual rate of soil erosion (whether from rainfall or wind) that will permit a high level of crop productivity to be sustained economically and indefinitely. T factors of 1 through 5 are used, and these numbers represent the amount of soil loss in tons per acre per year that should be permitted on a given soil. The T factor is used in the soil-loss equations for rainfall and wind erosion.
Soil Type
(1) A subdivision of a soil series based on surface soil texture. At the present time in the United States a soil type is considered as a kind of soil phase and is not part of the soil classification system presently being used. (2) In Europe, a class roughly equivalent to a great soil group.
Soil Variant
A kind of soil whose properties are believed to be sufficiently different from recognized soil series to justify a new series name but comprising such a limited geographic area that creation of a new series is not justified.
Sold-as-appraised Sales
Wood is sold "on the stump" and the sale price is based on the appraised volume determined by the forester. This volume is only an estimate.
Solid Waste
Debris and garbage generated by human activity.
Solitude
An experience of individuals communing alone with their surroundings in a natural setting generally undisturbed by the sound or sight of technology; the state of being alone or remote from habitations; isolation; a lonely, unfrequented or secluded place.
Spatial Feasibility
An expression of whether a project, development, or structure can be practically implemented on the ground.
Special Acres
A component of the regulated commercial forestland area that is recognized as needing special timber management techniques to achieve landscape objectives. Peripheral portions of developed recreation sites, and seen areas where retention or partial retention of the characteristic landscapes is a management objective are included in this classification.
Special Areas
Special areas are zones or areas such as Wilderness, Research, Natural, or Scenic classified by Congress, the Secretary of Agriculture, Chief of the Forest Service, or Regional Forester. Areas within the National Forest System Designated for their unique or special characteristics (36 CFR 219.7).
Special Cutting
Logging activities in special areas, such as recreation areas and administrative sites, where other uses or other values override timber production values.
Special Exception (Exception)
An exception (or special exception) is the granting of a permit for a use which is a deviation from standard zoning practice, but it is anticipated within the zoning ordinance and provisions for "exceptions" are made within the text. A private school, for instance, would not ordinarily be permitted in an area zoned exclusively residential; yet, since this might be a perfectly desirable and acceptable place for a school, allowance for the exception, subject to close scrutiny by the zoners, will be pre-established on the books.
Special Interest Area
Areas managed to make recreation opportunities available for the understanding of the Earth and its geological, historical, archaeological, botanical, and memorial features.
Special Interest Group
Any group (whether formally organized or not) with a specialized set of shared preferences about how resource use should be allocated.
Special Management Zone
Areas of unusual public interest or other significance. Examples are: wilderness, primitive areas, experimental forests, natural areas, scenic areas, and historical, geological, or archeological areas.
Special Use Permit
An agreement with the State or other political subdivision or public agency or private individual which permits the occupancy and use of the land for which a plan is prepared under specified conditions. Most permits require the payment of a fee.
Special Use Road
A road constructed and used across National Forest lands under permission from the Forest Service.
Species
  1. A unit of classification of plants and animals, consisting of the largest and most inclusive array of sexually reproducing and cross-fertilizing individuals which share a common gene pool.
  2. The smallest natural population regarded as sufficiently different from all other populations to deserve a name, and assumed or proved to remain different despite interbreeding with related species.
  3. Any native taxon of the plant or animal kingdom, including subspecies, distinct population segments, or Designated evolutionarily significant units.
Distinct population segments and evolutionarily significant units are consistent with regulations developed by the Departments of the Interior and Commerce to implement the Endangered Species Act.(USFS 1999). Any member of the currently accepted and scientifically defined plant or animal kingdoms of organisms (36 CFR 219.16).
Species Composition
The kinds and numbers of species occupying a specified area. The list, count of species, (and often proportions) of (tree) species occurring together in the same stand.
Species Diversity (Biologic Diversity)
The number of different species occurring in some location or under some condition, e.g., water pollution. Of the total number of species in a biotic community only a few are usually abundant while most are relatively uncommon. Because the large number of uncommon, relatively unimportant species largely determine the amount of "species diversity", this property is often expressed as a species diversity index which is calculated so as to better reflect the importance of those few species whose numbers, biomass, productivity, etc., so greatly dominate these attributes of the entire biological community. Species diversity tends to be low in physically controlled ecosystems (i.e., subjected to strong physiochemical limiting factors) and high in biologically controlled ecosystems. Diversity tends to be high in older communities and low in newly established ones. Diversity is directly correlated with ecological stability, but it is not certain to what extent this relationship is a cause-and-effect one.
US Forests Service planning purposes, 2005: The number and relative abundance of different species within a plan area.
Species Diversity Index (Diversity Index)
The ratio between the total number of species in a biotic community and some rating of the relative importance (numbers, biomass, productivity, etc.) of individual species. Often the Shannon-Weiner index is used.
Species, Edge
Species that occur primarily, most abundantly or most of the time in the transition zones between two or more biotic communities, i.e., in the ecotone.
Species, Endangered
An animal or plant the prospects of which for survival and reproduction are in immediate jeopardy. Its peril may result from one or many causes -- loss of habitat or change in habitat, overexploitation, predation, competition, disease or even unknown reasons. An endangered species must have help or extinction may follow. ." The appropriate Secretary must Designate it as "endangered species." Appropriate Department Secretaries Designate species that are likely to become "endangered species" within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their range as threatened species in the Federal Register. (2) Any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range- other than members of the class Insecta which have been determined by the Secretary to constitute a pest whose protection under the provisions of this Act would present an overwhelming and over riding risk to man. (3) Animals are declared "endangered" because their continued existence is threatened by one or more conditions. If any of the following conditions are true, the species (or subspecies) under consideration is declared "endangered": (a) the mortality rate consistently exceeds the birth rate; (b) it is incapable of adapting to environmental change; (c) its habitat is threaten by destruction or serious disturbance; (d) its survival is threatened by the unwanted introduction of other species through predation, competition, or disease; or (e) environmental pollution threatens its survival. Rare and endangered species are listed in the "Red Data Book" published by the International. Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and in "Rare and Endangered Fish and Wildlife of the United States" compiled by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U. S. Department of the Interior. (4) Those species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. Species or subspecies from very limited areas, e.g., the type localities only, or from restricted fragile habitats usually are considered "endangered."
Species, Endemic
A species the natural occurrence of which is confined to a certain region and the distribution of which is relatively limited.
Species, Exotic
Any species of wildlife not native to the continental United States.
Species, Feral
Non-native species or their progeny, which were once domesticated but have since escaped from captivity and are now living as wild animals, e.g., such as wild horses, burros, hogs, cats and dogs. Escaped plants are called "exotics."
Species, Game
(1) Wild animals, usually mammals or birds, hunted for sport or food and subject to legal regulations. (2) U. S. Forest Service usage. Any species of wildlife for which seasons and bag limits have been prescribed, and which are normally restricted to possession by sports-persons under state laws and regulations.
Species, Indigenous
Any species of wildlife native to a given land or water area. By agreement, indigenous species may include introduced or exotic species that have established a niche in ecology of an area over a long period and are compatible with certain land management objectives. Hungarian and chukar partridges and ring-necked pheasants are examples.
Species, Introduced (Exotic Species)
(1) Any species of wildlife not native to the continental United States. (2) Any species that is not native in the area where it occurs.
Species, Key
A species which plays an important ecological role in determining the overall structure and dynamic relationships within a biotic community. An evolutionary, component species of a biotic community whose presence is essential to the integrity and stability of a particular ecosystem. Key species may be unimportant as energy transformers in a biotic community (i.e., they may be neither very abundant nor consume large portions of the biotic productivity of a community). However, slight variations in key species' abundance results in large changes in the abundance of other species and/or in biotic community relationships and structure.
Species, Keystone
A species which plays an important ecological role in determining the overall structure and dynamic relationships within a biotic community. An evolutionary, component species of a biotic community the presence of which is essential to the integrity and stability of a particular ecosystem. Keystone species may be unimportant as energy transformers in a biotic community (i.e., they may be neither very abundant nor consume large portions of the biotic productivity of a community). However slight variations in keystone species' abundance results in large changes in the abundance of other species and/or in biotic community relationships and structure.
Species, Local
A species with a relatively small range but which is sufficiently common not to be called rare.
Species, Native
Animals or plants which originated in the area in which they are found, (i.e., were not introduced and naturally occur in that area).
Species, Naturalized
A (non-native) species established as if it were a native species, e.g., the annual grasses of California's Central Valley and foothills. (See Species, indigenous.)
Species, Non-game
A species not usually considered worthy of pursuit by sports-persons either for sport or food.
Species-of-Concern
Species for which the Responsible Official determines that management actions may be necessary to prevent the species being listed under the Endangered Species Act (36 CFR 219.16).
Species-of-Interest
Species for which the Responsible Official (US Forest Service) determines that management actions may be necessary or desirable to achieve ecological or other multiple use objectives (36 CFR 219.16).
Species, Peripheral (Boundary Species)
A species, or subspecies, the occurrence of which in the United States is at the edge of its natural range, and which is rare or endangered within the United States, although not in its range as a whole. Special attention is necessary to ensure retention in the nation's fauna. A species which reaches the limit of its natural range a short distance into a country (especially the U.S.) or some other boundary of significance to making planning area decisions.
Species, Rare
One that, although not presently threatened with extinction, is in such small numbers throughout its range and widely separated in small sub-populations, so that inbreeding between sub-populations is seriously reduced, competition unlikely classes of rare species. (1) Occurring as a very few individuals or small groups at widely scattered localities over a large geographic area of what appears to be suitable habitat. (2) Found in very small numbers widely dispersed in each community where they grow, but which occur in many suitable areas over their geographic range. (3) Having a range restricted to so few localities that they are considered rare even though they occur in large numbers at each locality. Rare is the condition if: (a) it is confined to a relatively small and specialized habitat, and it is incapable of adapting to different environmental conditions; (b) although found in other parts of the world, it is nowhere abundant; (c) it is so limited that any appreciable reduction in range, numbers, or habitat would cause it to become endangered; or (d) if current management and protection programs were diminished in any degree, it would become endangered.

Rare and endangered species are listed in the "Red Data Book" published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and in "Rare and Endangered Fish and Wildlife of the United States" compiled by the Bureau of the Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Department of the Interior.

Species, Recently Extinct or Possibly Extinct
Those species no longer known to exist after repeated search of the type localities and other known or likely places. Some species may be extinct in the wild but are being preserved by cultivation in gardens or as domesticated animals. Rare and endangered species are listed in the "Red Data Book" published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and in "Rare and Endangered Fish and Wildlife of the United States" compiled by the Bureau of the Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Department of the Interior. Rare is the condition if: (1) it is confined to a relatively small and specialized habitat, and it is incapable of adapting to different environmental conditions; (2) although found in other parts of the world, it is nowhere abundant; (3) it is so limited that any appreciable reduction in range, numbers, or habitat would cause it to become endangered; or (4) if current management and protection programs were diminished in any degree, it would become endangered.
Species, Representative
Representative species are those species which are representative, in terms of their biological requirements, of a balanced, indigenous community of wildlife in the study area of interest.
Species, Resident
Species common to an area without distinction as to being native (i.e., native organism or endemic organism) or introduced (i.e., exotic species, naturalized species or feral species).
Species, Status Undetermined
A species, or subspecies, that has been suggested as possibly being endangered but about which there is not enough information to determine its true status.
Species, Threatened
Any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range and which has been Designated in the Federal Register by the Secretary of Interior as a threatened species. This includes species categorized as rare, very rare, or depleted.
Species, Unique
Species which are not endangered, but have considerable scientific, local, or national interest.
Species Viability
A species consisting of self-sustaining and interacting populations that are well distributed through the species' range. Self-sustaining populations are those that are sufficiently abundant and have sufficient genetic diversity to display the array of life history strategies and forms to provide high likelihood for their long-term persistence and adaptability over time.(USFS 1999)
Species Richness
The number of species (usually by groups such as birds or mammals) in any given area.
Specific Conductance
A measure of the ability of a water to conduct an electrical current; measured in micromhos per centimeter at 25 degrees centigrade.
Specific Source
An artificial conduit or other conveyance where pollutants are discharged (from factories, sewage treatment plants, etc.) into a water body or aquifer.
Spodosols
Soils with alluvial accumulations of amorphous materials (organic matter and compounds of aluminum and usually iron) in subsurface horizons. These soils are formed in acid, mainly coarse-textured materials in humid and mostly cool or temperate climates. The particle-size class is mostly sandy, sandy- skeletal, coarse-loamy, loamy-skeletal, or coarse-silty.
Spoil
The overburden or non-coal material removed in gaining access to the coal or mineral material in surface mining.
Spoil, Acid
Usually spoil containing sufficient pyrite so that weathering produces acid water and the pH of the soil determined by standard methods of soils analysis is between 4.0 and 6.9.
Spoil Bank (Spoil Heap, Spoil Pile)
A mound of mine refuse created by the deposit of overburden or non- coal material prior to backfilling the coal seam. Synonyms include cast overburden, tip, culm, gob, refuse pile, slate dump, stack, and heap. Includes acid spoil with pH below 4.0. Also refers to spoil having amounts of minerals such as aluminum, manganese, and iron that adversely affect plant growth.
Spot Fire
Fire set outside the perimeter of the main fire by flying sparks or embers.
Spot Grazing
Repeated grazing of small areas while adjacent areas are lightly grazed or unused.
Spraying
Application of a liquid formulation (e.g., fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide) by air or ground delivery systems.
Spring
A place where water flows from bedrock or soil upon the land surface or into a body of water.
Sprout
A tree that grows from the stump or sucker root of a parent tree: it is not of seed origin. Basswood is frequently of sprout origin.
Stage (Complete)
The stage of a stream or lake is the height of the water surface above an established datum plane.
Stand
(1)An aggregation of trees or other growth occupying a specific area and sufficiently uniform in composition (species), age arrangement, and condition as to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas (a minimum of 1 acre of forest land that is at least 10 percent stocked by forest trees of any size). A forest stand is said to be " pure" if 80 percent or more of the trees present are of the same species. If less than 80 percent of all trees present are of the same species, the stand is said to be " mixed." (2) A plant and animal community.
Standard
A statement or a demonstration representing conditions of a job done properly. Standards show how well something should be done, rather than what should be done. Also criteria for desirable or tolerable conditions. A "standard" may not be fair, equitable, or based on sound scientific knowledge, (e.g., of the functional cause-effect relationship between specific pollutant concentrations and the resulting levels of damage) for it may have been established somewhat arbitrarily on the basis of best available technical data tempered by a factor for safety.
Standard Acres
The regulated commercial forest land area on which crops of industrial wood can be grown and harvested with adequate protection of the forest resources under the usual provisions of the timber sale contract.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA)
A county or group of contiguous counties that contains at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more (or "twin cities" with a combined population of at least 50,000); also, contiguous counties essentially metropolitan in character and socially and economically integrated with the central city. In New England, the SMSA is defined on a town rather than county basis. Much of the information collected in the census and useful for research or analysis is organized by SMSA.
Standard of Living
An organic whole, touching every phase of the life of the individual, the family, or the group. They concern the kind and quantity of food consumed, the sort of house lived in, clothing worn, etc., as well as the various cultural elements of existence, such as education, recreation, participation in church and civic organizations, and numerous other activities.
Stand Density
The quantity of trees per unit area. Density usually is evaluated in terms of basal area or percent-crown cover. See basal area, crown cover, stocking level.
Standing Crop (Standing Biomass, Standing Crop Biomass, Standing Stock)
The total number or the total weight of one or more species of animals and/or plants in an area at a given time. Biomass relates best to weight per unit area; "standing crop" relates to the summation of all those weights per unit area over some spatial extent of concern. Biomass may mean phytomass (plants only).
State Economic Area
Single counties or groups of counties that have similar economic and social characteristics. The boundaries of these areas have been drawn in such a way that each state is subdivided into relatively few parts, with each part having certain significant characteristics that distinguish it from adjoining areas. In the 1970 U.S. Census there were 510 "state economic areas." The combination of counties into state economic areas has been made for U.S., and in this process the larger standard metropolitan statistical areas (those in 1960 with a central city of 50,000 or more and a total population of 100,000 or more) were recognized as "metropolitan state economic areas". When a standard metropolitan statistical area was located in two or more states or economic subregions, each state part and each part in an economic subregion became a separate metropolitan state economic area. In New England this correspondence of "metropolitan state economic areas" and standard metropolitan statistical areas" did not exist because state economic areas are composed of whole counties, whereas standard metropolitan statistical areas are built up from towns. There a county with more than half its population in one or more standard metropolitan statistical areas" was classified as a metropolitan "state economic area" if the county or combination of counties containing standard metropolitan statistical or areas had 100,000 inhabitants or more.
Station Point
The location of the viewer looking upon an objective particularly with regard to being below, at the same level as, or above the visual objective.
Statistic
A summary value calculated from a sample of observations, usually but not necessarily as an estimator of some population parameter; a function of sample values.
Steady-State Conditions
The desired future environmental conditions to be created and maintained by using management practices as described in the management area prescriptions.
Steno-
A prefix denoting an organism which can only tolerate a narrow range of changes of one or more of its environmental conditions. For example, stenothermal refers to organisms that cannot tolerate much change in temperature. Eury-organisms can tolerate large changes.
Stewardship
A synonym for management, but it more specifically refers to resource management, and implies an emphasis on the careful and conscientious use and conservation of resources and ecosystems in a sustainable manner.
Stick, Biltmore
A rule graduated in such a way that the diameter of standing tree may be estimated when the stick is held tangent to the surface and at right angles to the main axis of the tree, and at a distance from the eye for which the slick is graduated.
Stick, Scale
A graduated stick for measuring the diameters and contents of logs; both measures are stamped on the stick.
Stochastic Process
Any process the development of which in time is apparently governed by chance or probabilistic considerations.
Stocking Level
In a forest, a more or less subjective indication of the number of existing trees (stem density) in a stand as compared to the desirable number for best growth and management, e.g., maximum productivity of wood. Expressions: well-stocked, overstocked, or partially stocked.
Stocking Plan
The number and kind of livestock assigned to one or more given management areas or management units for a specified period.
Stocking, Proper
Placing a number of animals on a given area that will result in proper use at the end of the planned grazing period. Continued proper stocking leads to proper grazing.
Stocking Rate (Grazing Rate)
The actual number of animals, expressed in either animal units or animal unit months, on a specific area at a specific time.
Stomata
Minute openings on the surfaces of leaves and stems through which gases (e.g., oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor) and some dissolved minerals pass into and out of plants
Storage Coefficient
The volume of water released from storage in a vertical column of 1.0 square foot, when the water table or piezometric surface declines l foot.
Stored Function
A mathematical function that is predefined by the Data Base Administrator and included as part of the schema. It is invoked as part of an Action Clause in order to perform some calculation.
STORET
A computerized database utility maintained by EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) for the Storage and Retrieval of parametric data relating to the quality of the waterways of the United States.
Stortha
G. The point of an arrow.
Storie Index
A numerical expression of the degree to which a particular soil presents conditions favorable for plant growth and crop production under favorable climate and adequate moisture conditions. Four general factors are considered: (1) the character of the soil profile; (2) soil texture; (3) slope of the land and; (4) other modifying factors such as drainage, salinity, alkalinity, soil acidity, erosion conditions, fertility level and microrelief. Each of these four factors is evaluated on the basis of 100 percent for the most favorable or ideal conditions, with limiting maximum and minimum ratings ascribed to conditions that are less favorable for plant growth.
Strategy
A carefully considered plan or method, more encompassing and larger scale than tactics, for achieving an objective.
Stratification (Land Stratification)
Grouping land units into similar units to reduce their variance and increase economy of sampling effort and descriptions. A planning unit can be split into homogeneous response units (without names or classes) about which useful generalizations can be made without having to make site specific studies.
Stratification, Chemical
(1) A condition found in temperate lakes of the second order during the summer and winter stagnation periods in which certain horizontal strata become different chemically from adjacent ones, often with abrupt transitions. (2) Layering of water in a lake because of density differences owing to the varying or differential concentrations of dissolved substances with depth.
Stratification, Thermal
The layering of water masses owing to different densities in response to temperature. The condition of a body of water in which the successive horizontal layers have different temperatures, each layer. more or less sharply differentiated from the adjacent ones, the warmest (or the coldest) at the top.
Stratified Seed
Seed that has been stoned in a cool, moist condition before use. This storage practice hastens the germination of some species.
Stream
A body of water flowing in a natural channel as distinct from a canal.
Stream Flow
The discharge of water from a watershed that occurs in a natural stream channel.
Stream, Intermittent
A stream which flows only part of the year.
Stream, Interrupted
A stream in which part of the flow is underground.
Stream Load
The quantity of solid and dissolved material carried by a stream.
Stream Order
A means for expressing the size and significance of streams. First order streams are headwaters with no feeder streams; second-order streams result from the joining of first-order streams. Major rivers are 8th or 9th order. Watersheds are often classed based on the order of their stream. A zero-order watershed is the minimum area with runoff of sufficient force to initate channel development (Dennis M. Law, 1986).
Stream, Perennial
A stream which flows throughout the year with waters covering the substratum.
Stream-gauging Station
A gauging station where a record of discharge of a stream is obtained. Within the Geological Survey this term is used only for those gauging stations where a continuous record of discharge is obtained.
Streamcourses
Any stream bed carrying intermittent or permanent flows of sufficient volume, frequency, or velocity to develop a clearly defined channel.
Streamflow
The discharge or water movement that occurs in a natural channel.
Streamside Management Zone (SMZ)
An area of natural timber or vegetation protected and maintained on each side of a stream or drainage to provide habitat diversity and wildlife corridors, and to protect water quality.
Stress
(1) The conditions resulting from any environmental change that disturbs the normal functioning of an animal to such an extent that its chances for survival are reduced. (2) The result or consequent state of a physical, chemical, or social stimulus on an organism or system; (3) a state of strain, resulting from stress; a stimulus, but medical ecology uses "stressor." (4) The condition of an animal in which large parts of the body deviate from their normal resting state, either because of their activity or because of an injury. (5) The total energy with which water is held in the soil.
Stress, Thermal
The heat tolerances affecting organisms.
Strip Cutting -
A clear cutting system variation in which the logging operation removes all merchantable timber from areas that run through a stand and are usually of a width equal to one or two times the general stand height.
Strip Pit
A coal or other mine, usually open-pit, worked by stripping away the surface soil and rock above a mineral deposit.
Structural Diversity
The degree of variety, vertically or horizontally, perhaps volumetrically, in the herb, shrub, and tree layers of vegetation of an area.
Structural Range Improvement
Any type of range improvement that is made by people (fences, corrals, etc.).
Stumpage
Uncut trees standing in the forest. Sometimes used to mean the commercial value of standing trees.
Stumpage Price
The price a logger is willing to pay for wood as it is in the woodland or "on the stump."
Stumpage Value
The value of timber as it stands uncut, on the stump, in terms of an amount of money per cubic unit. The value is usually small since likely local costs of overhead, cutting, and transportation must be added before the tree reaches market and is bought by someone.
Subclimax
A stage in succession prior to the climax community in which further development is inhibited by the influence of some factors other than climatic factors.
Subculture (Group Culture)
A group with different folkways and mores developed within a society. Groups with common play, age, vocational, sexual, habitational, or other interests evolve behavior patterns that differ from those of other groups and from society's conventions.
Subdivision (Land Subdivision)
The process (or area itself) of dividing a given area of undeveloped land into individual home sites and/or blocks of lots with streets or roads and open spaces. (After Abrams 1971)
Submarginal Land
Land which is economically incapable of sustaining indefinitely a certain use or ownership status.
Suboptimization
The selection of the best alternative course of action which pertains to a subproblem, that is, to only part of the overall problem or objective. Suboptimization is usually necessary because alternatives at all the various levels of decision making cannot, as a practical matter, be analyzed simultaneously before decisions are made at any level.
Subsidence
A downward movement of the ground surface caused by solution and collapse of underlying soluble deposits, rearrangement of particles upon removal of underground mineral deposits, reduction of fluid pressures within an aquifer or petroleum reservoir, or collapse of land over mined lands.
Subsoil
The B soil horizon of soils with distinct soil profiles. In soils with weak profile development, the subsoil can be defined as that below the soil in which roots normally grow (i.e., below the plowed soil or its equivalent of surface soil). It cannot be defined accurately; a carry-over from early days when "soil" was conceived only as the plowed soil and that under it as the "subsoil".
Substratum
The surface on or in which organisms live. Substrate is chemical term referring to a compound or molecule upon which a reaction takes place. The layer on which organisms grow, often used synonymously with surface of ground. The substance, usually a protein, attached by an enzyme; often but improperly used variant of substratum.
Succession (Ecological Succession, Ecosystem Development)
An orderly process of biotic community change or development that involves changes in species, structure, and community processes with time. The gradual replacement of one plant community by another. It is reasonably directional and, therefore, largely predictable. It results from modification of the physical environment by the community. Succession is community-controlled even though the physical environment determines the pattern, the rate of change, and often sets limits as to how far development can go. It culminates in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass and symbiotic function between organisms are maintained per unit of available energy flow. The whole sequence of communities that replaces one another in a given area is called the sere; the relatively transitory communities are variously called "seral stages" or "developmental stages." "Pioneer stages" occur first; the terminal stabilized stage is the climax. Species replacement in the sere occurs because populations tend to modify the environment, making conditions favorable for other populations until equilibrium between biotic and abiotic is achieved. A "sere" whose first stage is open water is termed a "hydrosere", one whose first stage is dry ground, a "xerosere" Succession is "primary" on sites that have not previously borne vegetation, "secondary" after the whole or part of the original vegetation has been supplanted, "allogenic" when the causes of succession are external to and independent of the community (e.g., accretion of soil by wind or water, or a change of climate) and "autogenic" when the developing vegetation is itself the cause.
Successional Stages. The different structural and compositional phases of vegetation development of forests and grasslands that occur over time and include the major developmental or seral stages that occur within a particular environment.
Succession, Primary
Successions beginning from newly formed soils or upon surfaces exposed for the first time (as by land slides or lava) which have as a consequence never borne vegetation or animals.
Succession, Secondary
Any succession caused by a human agency following the destruction of part or all of the vegetation in an area.
Sugar Bush
A stand mostly of sugar maple trees which is currently used for gathering sap for producing maple syrup.
Suitability (Capability)
Rating of use or productivity potentials based on the present state of the resource. Evaluation based on the resource's inherent, natural or intrinsic ability to provide for use and includes that existing ability that is the result of past alterations or current management practices. Another evaluation procedure rates the potential ability of a resource to produce goods or services on the basis of the maximum possible outputs for a given type and level of future, alternative site, or resource management inputs. G. Angus Hills used the terms use capability to refer to evaluations based on a resource's inherent or present condition abilities, use suitability for evaluations based on potential management inputs, and use feasibility to refer to usability potential ratings based on an evaluation of off site factors, e.g., such as accessibility, present and forecasted socioeconomic conditions, technological developments, etc. "Capability" has precedence and should be used when referring to evaluations for usability based on the present state of the resource and "suitability" should only be used for evaluations based on assumptions about potential usability or productivity if specified management alterations were to be made. Modifiers should accompany both terms.

US FS, 2005: The appropriateness of applying certain resource management practices to a particular area of land, as determined by an analysis of the social, economic, and environmental consequences and the alternative uses foregone. A unit of land may be suitable for a variety of individual or combined management practices.

Suitability, Intrinsic
Relative display of locations within a planning area having the maximum coincidence of favorable natural environmental factors relevant to the location of a prospective land use and the fewest constraints on that use.
Suitable Forest Land
Land that is managed for timber production.
Suitable Range
Area which is accessible to livestock, is producing or has the potential of producing an adequate amount of forage that can be grazed by livestock on a sustained yield basis under an intensive management system without causing damage to the range, wildlife habitat, timber regeneration, soil, watershed or other resource values.
Suitable Timber Lands
Forest lands to be managed for timber production.
Summer Annual Grasses
Grasses that must be replanted each spring. These plantings provide summer feeding areas for many kinds of wildlife, especially young turkeys and quail which utilize green forage and insects. Plants that mature and produce seed in late surnmer- to early fall such as millets and sorghums are also used by seed-eating birds.
Summer Perennial Grasses
Grasses that do not need to be replanted each spring. These plantings also provide green forage, seeds, and insects for many kinds of wildlife.
Supplement
(1) Something that makes an addition; something that completes, adds a finishing touch, or brings closer to completion or a desired state. (2) A "complement" is a supplement that results in mutual benefits to a plan and its addition. Supplements do not gain anything unto themselves by their addition to a plan.
Supply
The amount of an output that producers are willing to provide at the specified price, time period, and condition of sale.
Supply Schedule (Curve)
A schedule of amounts of an output that producers are willing to provide at a range of prices, at a given point in time and condition of sale (See Price-Quantity Relationship).
Supply Schedule (Supply)
The amount of a good or service that will be offered for sale over a given range of prices at a particular point in time.
Suppressed
The condition of a tree characterized by low growth rate and low vigor due to competition with overtopping trees.
Suppression
Activities required in extinguishing or confining a fire, beginning with its discovery.
Surface Mining, Block Cut Method
A method of surface mining in which overburden is removed and placed around the periphery of a box- shaped cut. After coal is removed, the spoil is pushed back into the cut and the surface is blended into the topography.
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977
An Act which sets forth provisions to oversee the mining of coal, to protect the environment from unnecessary degradation as a result of coal mining, and to provide for the reclamation of lands following coal mining.
Surface Mining, Extended Bench Method
A method of surface mining which employs a large capacity walking dragline in deep overburden operating from a machine-supporting bench formed by filling the "V" between the bank and the spoil. This V- section is formed from material that falls from the bank or is placed by the dragline and it must be rehandled. Rehandling averages approximately 10-25% of the solid bank, depending on the height of the bench.
Surface Mining, Lateral Movement Mining
A method of surface mining in which coal is removed by stripping and augering with no material being placed on the downslope. Lateral movement reduces disturbed acreage by nearly two-thirds when compared with conventional surface mining because the overburden is hauled by truck laterally along the bench and then backfilled against the high- way.
Surface Mining, Modified Block Method
This method of surface mining adapts the "Block cut" method to steeply sloped areas. The modi-fication essentially is backfilling with spoil from succeeding blocks rather than from the spoil-pro-ducing block.
Surface Mining, Open Pit Method
A type of surface mining in which the overburden is removed from the product being mined and is dumped back after mining; or may specifically refer to an area from which the overburden has been removed and has not been filled.
Surface Mining, Strip
Surface mining in which the over- burden is removed in narrow, consecutive bands, producing an uneven surface of ridges resembling a plowed field.
Surface Rights
The ownership of or rights to the surface of the land only and the mineral rights have been separately reserved. Also, the right of a mineral owner to use so much of the surface of the land as may be reasonably necessary for the conduct of mining operations.
Surface Soil (Topsoil)
The uppermost part of the soil ordinarily moved in tillage (or its equivalent in uncultivated soils) ranging in depth from 5 to 8 inches. It is frequently Designated as the "plow layer," the Ap layer, or the Ap soil horizon.
Surface Storage
The sum of detention storage and channel storage, representing, at any given moment, the total water enroute to an outlet from an area or watershed.
Surface Water
Water on the surface of the Earth such as that in a river or lake.
Surface Water Telemetry
The surface water telemetry component identifies the type of system or equipment being used to transmit surface water information (primarily stage data) from the data collecting site to a central receiving site.
Suspended Load
The smaller suspended sediment particles that are lifted far from the bottom of a water body for long periods by running water and are distributed through the whole body of the current.
Suspended Sediment
Sediment that remains suspended in the water for a long period of time without coming in contact with the bottom.
Suspended Solids
Colloidal and particulate matter such as clay, sand, and finely divided organic material, that cause a cloudy condition and a term synonymous with suspended sediment; however, it is generally used by sanitary engineers in connection with water treatment facilities, while suspended sediment is generally used by civil or hydraulic engineers in connection with sediment transport studies.
Sustained Yield (Sustained Production)
(1)An ideal forest management objective at which point the volume of wood removed is equal to growth within the total forest.Sustained-yield management, therefore, implies continuous production planned to achieve at the earliest practical time a balance between increment to the mature forest and its cutting. (2)Achieving and maintaining in perpetuity a nearly equal annual or regular periodic output of the various renewable resources, without impairment of the productivity of the land. Whether "yield" should be of wood or products ... or benefits...or profit...remains debated.
Sustained Yield Management
Continuous production of the forest crop so planned as to achieve, at the earliest practical time, a balance between growth and cutting.
Sustainability
Meeting needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Sustainability is composed of desirable ecological, economic, and social conditions or trends interacting at varying spatial and temporal scales. Embodies the principles of multiple-use and sustained-yield, appropriate to scale, without impairment to the productivity of the land.
Swamp
An area saturated with water throughout much of the year, but with the surface of the soil usually not deeply submerged.
Sweep
Tree defect resulting from a gradual curve in the main stem of the tree.
Synergism
The combined action of two or more agents the result of which is greater than the sum of the actions of each of the agents acting alone. See Antagonism for combined actions that have results less than those from a simple summation of individual actions.
System
An organized collection of parts that are related to each other, united by regulated relations in such a way that changes in one component can affect some, or all of the other components.
System Function
A predefined operator that enables the user to obtain from a computer or computed value such as average, count, or standard deviation of selected values.
System Road
A road under a single administration on which regular programs of maintenance are carried out. All traffic is subject to State traffic laws.
Systems Analysis
(1) The study of how component parts of a system interact and contribute to that system. (2) The act, process, or profession of studying an activity (as a procedure, a business, or a physiological function) typically by mathematical means in order to define its goals or purposes and to discover operations and procedures for accomplishing them most efficiently.
Systems Approach
A systematic consideration of problems wherein analysis is stressed as well as intuition. a) Implies seeking an optimal course of action, i.e., objectives, costs, effectiveness, and risks of alternative strategies. This latter refers to systems analysis. b) Utilizing a systems approach to problems that entails (i) compiling, condensing, and synthesizing a great amount of information concerning the components of the system, (ii) examining in detail the structure of the system, (iii) translating this knowledge of systems components, function, and structure into models of the system, and (iv) using the models to derive new insights about managing and utilizing the systems.


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