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K-V Funds
In 1930, Congress passed the Knutson-Vanderberg Act (K-V Act) to authorize collection of funds (K-V Funds) for reforestation and timber stand improvement on areas cut over following a timber sale. Funds are to be used to protect and improve the future productivity of renewable resources on timber sale areas.
Key Area
Areas of land that supplement or provide major quantities of specific habitat requirements (food, water or cover). For range management usage see Key Grazing Area. For wildlife, these are areas that may limit population growth; have toxic characteristic; be easily eroded; or need intensive care.
Key Components
Areas or landscape features particularly important for maintaining the overall integrity of elk or other wildlife habitat.
Key Facility
Public facilities, which tend to induce development and urbanization. Including but not limited to: (1) any major airport designed to serve as a terminal for regularly scheduled air passenger service; (2) major interchanges between the interstate highway system or other limited-access highways and frontage access streets or highways; (3) major frontage access streets and highways; (4) major recreational lands and facilities; (5) major facilities on non-Federal lands for developing, generating, and transmitting energy (including such facilities as major power-plants, transmission lines, oil and gas pipelines, refineries, tank farms, etc.
Key Grazing Area
That portion of a pasture or grazing unit which, because of its nature, location, and grazing use, serves to control the pattern of grazing use for the pasture as a whole.
Key Management Species
Major plant or animal species on which land management should be based.
Keystone Complex
A web of animals and food, predators and prey, that is especially important in defining an ecosystem.
Keystone Species
Plants that significantly modify the physical environment or animals that have important influences on other biota; e.g., removal of a keystone tree species from swamp islands may result in loss of an animal species there and the entire community.
Key Utilization Species
Forage species the use of which serves as an indicator to the degree of use of associated plant species.
(or megapascals), a unit of expression for osmotic concentrations (e.g., of urine and blood), typically with negative values
Knutson-Vandenberg Deposits
Payment (according to a bill by K-V) by a timber purchases included in high bid price that is retained by the US Forest Service for reforestation and other forest improvements. K-V reforestation and KV TSI (timberstand improvement) are paid by these funds placed in the Federal budget by timber stand purchasers.

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Last revision January 17, 2000.