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A wire mesh basket filled with rocks that is used to protect erodible stream-banks or to create dams, deflectors, or other in-stream structures.
Pronounced swelling or outgrowth on a plant, usually insect or disease caused.
Game Management Unit
An administrative unit for land, typically with an emphasis on management and hunting of wild game.
Game Species
Any species of wildlife or fish for which hunting seasons, bag limits, and other laws and regulations have been prescribed, and which are normally harvested by hunters, trappers, poachers, and anglers under state and federal laws, codes, and regulation.
Game Theory
The study of decision problems in competitive situations. Game theory is the procedure for analyzing and deriving rules for making decisions when two or more people or organizations are competing for some objective.
Gamma Diversity
Any of a variety of definitions of diversity relating to differences among the communities present or species present in a specific large area (e.g., a watershed).
Gap Analysis
A procedure for comparing the actual distribution of faunal and floral species and vegetation classes to areas preserved or managed for their protection. Species and classes that are poorly represented in protected areas suggest gaps in the protection "for biodiversity." Areas inhabited by such species and classes thus become candidates for acquisition or Designated protection.
General Systems Theory
A set of logical deductions about the behavior of a class of objects called systems. General systems theory has been developed in order to explain and explore the general behavior that is common to all or most apparently different empirical systems found within different disciplines. It is interdisciplinary in nature and finds a place between the level of complete generalization of mathematics and the level of specific relations within each academic field.
General Welfare
The state of well being (i.e., health, happiness, prosperity, etc.) of all people in a society; the sum of the individual utilities in a society.
Geologic Materials
Any of the naturally occurring mineral or rock substances. Especially used with reference to classes of such substances the properties of which are so significantly different that knowledge of their distribution is important in land use planning decisions.
Geological Area
A unit of land with outstanding formations or unique geologic features of the Earth's development, including caves and fossils, subsidence areas, and earthquake-prone areas.
Geomorphic Processes
The physical and chemical means which cause a modification of the Earth's surficial form, e.g., volcanic activity, weathering, mass-wasting, erosion, sedimentation, glacial action, running water, etc.
General Administration
overhead costs of agency operation and forestry (etc.) sales within an agency including salaries of rangers, supervisors, and other officials.
The science that deals with land and submarine relief features of the Earth's surface and seeks a genetic interpretation of them using the principles of physiography in its descriptive aspects and of dynamic and structural geology in its explanatory phases.
The breaking of the seed coat followed by the protrusion of the hypocotyl (that part of the axis of a plant embryo or seedling below the first leaf or pair or whorl of leaves developed by the embryo of a seed plant) forming a root system.
Encircling the bole of a living tree with cuts that sever the bark and cambium and kill the tree.
Geographic information system, the entire system of staff, space, hardware, software, and presentation media and devices
Goal (Plan Goals, Management Goal)
A concise, broad statement of an organization's end, or process that programs are designed to achieve. A goal is normally expressed as a broad, general statement of purpose, is usually not quantifiable, and is timeless in that it usually has no specific date by which it is to be completed. Often, it would not be expected that a goal could ever be completely achieved. The goal is the principal statement from which objectives must be developed. See goals vs objectives.(Type I-General, in Giles' 7 types of objectives.) For example, U.S. Department of Agriculture goals relating to problems associated with agricultural production are (1) to work for disease and pest control and (2) to conduct research on production. Goals are normally stated in terms of the fulfillment of broad public needs, the preservation of fundamental constitutional principles, the achievement of targeted levels of excellence, the alleviation of major problems, or other purposes to be served by government effort. A goal usually has a societal consensus.
Goal Programming
A mathematical approach to optimization. A series of goals or objectives are established which can be expressed as mathematical equations. However, due to constraints on the original problem, not all the goals can be met simultaneously. It is necessary to allow positive and negative slack within these goals equations. This slack is allocated to "slack variables," which are combined with the goals to form (1) a linear equation to be minimized or maximized and (2) a series of accompanying constraint equations. This system of equations is then solved by conventional linear programming techniques.
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. A satellite telemetry system used to relay data, normally every 3 hours, from in situ sensors.
Goods and Services
The various outputs, including on-site uses, produced from wildland resources.
Gouging is an act to produce a land surface configuration using mechanical reclamation equipment. It is intended to trap precipitation, increase infiltration, and reduce erosion.
Common usage: (1) The inclination or slope of a stream channel or ground surface, usually expressed in terms of the ratio or percentage of number of units of vertical rise or fall per unit of horizontal distance. (2) The finished surface of a roadbed, top of an embankment or bottom of an excavation. (3) To establish a new land surface profile.
Evaluating and sorting trees or logs according to quality.
Graphic Scale
A bar, or other such graphic device, on a scale drawing, divided into properly scaled-down measurement units. In subsequent photographic reduction or enlargement of a drawing, the "graphic scale" becomes a device from which distances can be readily and accurately measured.
Consumption of range or artificial pasture forage by animals.
Grazing Capacity, Maximum
The maximum number of animals that a given range area is capable of supporting without inducing injury to soil, vegetation, or a watershed.
Grazing, Continuous
Allowing domestic livestock to graze a specific area throughout the grazing season; not necessarily synonymous with grazing for a 12-month period or a calendar year.
Grazing, Deferred
Discontinuance of grazing by livestock on an area for a specified period of time during the growing season to promote plant reproduction, establish new plants, or restore plant vigor.
Grazing, Deferred Rotation
Discontinuance of grazing on various parts of a range in succeeding years, allowing each part to rest successively during the growing season to permit seed production, establish seedlings, or restore plant vigor. Two, but usually three or more, separate grazing units are required. Control is usually insured by unit fencing, but may be obtained by herding on sheep ranges.
Grazing District
An administrative unit of Federal range established by the Secretary of Interior under the provisions of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, as amended or a similar unit of state, private, or other rangelands.
Grazing, Heavy
A comparative term (often used in research but may apply to practical management as well) which indicates that the stocking rate of a pasture is relatively greater than other pastures. Often erroneously used to mean over use.
Grazing, Intermittent
Grazing range or artificial pasture for indefinite periods at indefinite intervals.
Grazing Land, Native
Grazing land used primarily for producing of native forage plants maintained or manipulated primarily through grazing management. Native grazing lands include rangeland, woodland that may be properly grazed, and native pasture, individually or collectively.
Grazing, Light
A comparative term (often used in research but may apply to practical management as well) which indicates that the stocking rate of one pasture is relatively less than that of other pastures. Often erroneously used to mean "under-use" of grazing capacity.
Grazing Management Plan -
A program of action designed to secure the best practicable use of range. (Objectives are critical for determining "best" and "practicable.")
Grazing, Moderate
A comparative term (often used in research but may apply to practical management as well) which indicates that the stocking rate of a pasture is in between the rates of that on other pastures.
Grazing Permit (Grazing License)
Official, written permission to graze a specified number, kind, and class of livestock for a specific period on a defined range allotment.
Grazing Preference
Probable selection of certain plants over others by grazing animals or in administrating public lands, the basis upon which permits and licenses are issued for grazing use.
Grazing, Premature
Grazing before range plants have reached sufficient seasonal development to avoid over-use or before the soil has become firm enough to withstand the presence of grazing animals. Range readiness is reached when these conditions are met and range utilization may properly begin.
Grazing Pressure
The actual animal-to-forage ratio at a specific time, e.g., three animal units per ton of standing forage.
Grazing Privilege
Permissive use of lands for grazing by livestock.
Grazing, Rest Rotation
An intensive system of management whereby grazing is deferred on various parts of the range during succeeding years, allowing the deferred part complete rest for one year. Two or more units are required. Control by fencing is usually necessary on cattle range, but may be obtained by herding on sheep ranges.
Grazing Right
A right to graze land, permanently vested in the beneficiary as specified by the terms of the law, land title, or contract.
Grazing, Rotation
Grazing two or more pastures or parts of a range in regular order, with definite recovery periods between grazing periods. Where only two fields are involved, sometimes called alternate grazing.
Grazing Season
A period of grazing within which optimum use of the forage resource may be obtained.
Grazing, Selective
The grazing of certain plant species on the range to the exclusion of others.
Grazing, Spot
Repeated grazing of small areas while adjacent areas are lightly grazed or unused.
Grazing System
The manipulation of livestock grazing to accomplish a desired result. A planned program of livestock management to accomplish pre-determined objectives. A system selected for an area that can be integrated with the stockperson's operation and provides for coordinating range use with other resource uses.
Grazing Trespass
The grazing of livestock on a range area without proper authority.
Green Belt
Open space areas around villages, towns or cities in which development is strictly controlled and (usually not permitted). A useful device for preventing the sprawl of towns or the union of one town with another, providing townspeople with a welcome release from the strain of city life, and protecting the special character of some towns. The main deficiency of green belt preservation is that it seems to encourage development leap-frogging over the green belt to the land beyond it.
Greentree Reservoir
A forested wetland innundated during the dormant period of tree growth to provide temporarily aquatic habitat, usually for waterfowl, without damaging tree survival.
The Tenth Edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary recognised the word "greenwash" as part of the official English language, defining it as "Disinformation disseminated by an organization so as to present an environmentally responsible public image. Derivatives greenwashing (n). Origin from green on the pattern of whitewash."
Ground Water
Subsurface water occupying the saturation zone (where all openings in soils and rocks are filled), from which wells and springs are fed. The upper surface of this zone of saturation forms the "water table."
Group Cutting (Group Selection Cuts)
A silvicultural system of uneven-age management in which the logging operation removes all merchantable timber from an area smaller than that normally recognized in timber type and condition class mapping. It removes small groups of trees to meet a predetermined goal of size, distribution, and species in their remaining stands. Trees are removed in small groups at a time to improve the stand and encourage re-generation in an uneven-aged forest. Group cuts end up being one-fifth (0.2) to 1.0 acre in area, but area is not a criterion for selecting trees for removal. Group, patch, strip, and stand cutting, however, have been used as size Designations of the same logging approach, commonly known as clear-cutting. All require the removal of all merchantable trees except a few which may sometimes be carried over where needed for other forest values such as nesting sites, food caches, etc. Group cuts are made on areas that are smaller than the size normally recognized in type and condition class mapping. Patch cuts are made on areas that are of a size generally mapped for type and condition and for control, but which do not include the entire stand of which they are a part. Strip cuts are on areas running through a stand and usually of a width equal to one to two times the general stand height. Stand cuts are on areas large enough to be practical for management.
Growing Stock Level
Timber growing on any area expressed in either stems per acre or square feet of basal area.
Growth Rate
With reference to wood, the rate at which the wood substance has been added to the tree at any particular point; usually expressed in terms of number of rings per inch. Growth rate bears an inverse relationship to number of rings per inch. Also applies to volume, value, or other types of increase in trees or stands.
Growth Rings
The layers of wood laid down each growing season, also called annual rings. These rings frequently are visible when a tree is cut and may be used to estimate the age of the tree, as well as to determine the rate of its growth.
A steering or usual course of action, but neither mandatory nor requiring a superior's approval for deviation from it. A statement, information and guidance, which assists in decision making and determining the course of direction to be taken in any planned project and action to accomplish or achieve specific desired conditions and objectives.
A channel or miniature valley cut by concentrated runoff but through which water commonly flows only during and immediately after heavy rains or during the melting of snow. The distinction between "gully" and rill is one of depth. A gully is sufficiently deep that it would not be obliterated by normal tillage operations, whereas a rill would be smoothed by ordinary farm tillage.
Ground Water Site Inventory File. A computerized file that contains inventory data about wells, springs, and other sources of ground water. The data include site location and identification, geohydrologic characteristics, well construction history, and one-time field measurements such as water temperature.

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Last revision January 17, 2000.