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Face Cord
Stove length wood with a face of 32 square feet (a stack 4 ft high and 8 ft wide); the volume depends upon its length.

Capital improvements (typically long-lasting) such as buildings, roads, trails, fences, bridges, dams, heliports, and airfields that primarily facilitate producing resource elements.

Factor, Abiotic Environmental
A non-living component of the environment (e.g., climate, slope, aspect) which may affect the living components of that environment.
Factor, Biotic Environmental
Plants or animals that affect ecological processes, e.g., shading by trees or trampling by animals.
Factor, Controlling Environmental
One or more limiting factors or conditions influencing an organism or assemblage of organisms in a way that accounts for a large part of the observed behavior and distribution of that biological entity, e.g., the wilting of a plant because of insufficient soil moisture.
Factor, Density-Dependent
An influence (occurrence or magnitude) that is responsive to the numbers of organisms per unit area (or volume) and as a result of such responses either enhances or reduces the suitability of the environment for the organism in question, e.g., a limited number of prey animals for the number of predators present in an area.
Factor, Density-Independent
An influence that is effective without regard to the density of individuals in a population, e.g., very unfavorable weather.
Factor, Limiting Environmental
The environmental influence by which the limit of toleration of a plant or animal population is first reached and which therefore acts as the immediate restriction to one or more of its functions or activities or in its geographic distribution.
Family Unit
A developed recreation site, including facilities and space needed for picnicking or camping, with a capacity of up to five people and generally suited for use by one average size family.
Farmstead or Headquarters
Land used primarily for dwellings, barns, pens, corrals, gardens, and other uses in connection with operating farms or ranches.
Fault (Earthquake Fault)
A fracture in the ground surface or fracture zone along which there has been displacement of one side with respect to the other.
Fault, Active
A linear break in the Earth's surface that has undergone movement in recent geologic time (the last 10,000 years) and may be subject to future movement.
The animal life of an area, at a time, used in the broad sense to include birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, amphibians, insects, mollusks, and crustaceans. Life, other than plants.
Feasibility (Use Feasibility)
Evaluation of lands-use conditions based on the present likelihood or under specific management conditions with socioeconomic assumptions or climate (e.g., accessibility or population potential) or social climate. Areas close to a city have a higher feasibility than those more distant.
Production of young by animals within an age class (typically a rate). Precisely, the conception rate; also the ability to produce offspring.
Federal Lands
All Federal land no matter how it was acquired and no matter what agency has responsibility for its management, except reservation and other tribal lands.
Any non-injurious edible material having nutrient value; may be harvested forage, range or artificial pasture forage, grain, or other processed food for livestock or wild fauna.
A component of general systems theory. Negative feedback is a return to a system that reduces the quantity or quality of outputs. Positive feedback tends to increase subsequent outputs.
Feedback Loop
The pathway within a system by which a portion of the output of a system or process returns to become a part of its inputs, changes the process, feed-forward, or system context. The adaptive or corrective steps in a management system.
Felling (Cutting)
Cutting down standing trees. "Felling" is not a synonym for logging or harvesting. These latter terms also include removing felled trees and some initial processing of the timber prior to removal.
Feral Species
See Species, Feral.
Production of male or female sex cells or average male or female viable sex cell production. See also Soil Fertility.
Final Environmental Impact Statement; an official document
Filter Strip
A strip of land of variable width retained or constructed along live streams as a safeguard to prevent sediment reaching the stream.
Final Cutting
The logging operation that removes the last of the old crop trees in a stand that is being managed under the shelterwood system of silviculture.
FIPS codes
Federal Information Processing Standards. Standards and codes adopted and promulgated under the provision of Public Law 89-306 and Part 6 of Title 15 Code of Federal Regulations. These standards, issued by the National Bureau of Standards, are required for implementation by Federal agencies in acquiring, developing, and using automated information systems and in interchanging data between and among agencies and with the public.
Fire Break
A natural or artificial barrier usually created by removing vegetation to prevent or retard the spread of fire. (Also called a fire line or fire lane.)
Fire Management
All activities required for protecting resources and values from fire, and using fire to meet land management goals and objectives.
Fire Management Area
One or more parcels of land with clearly defined boundaries and with established fire management direction that is responsive to land and resource management goals and objectives.
Fire Planning
Planning for predicting, preventing, detecting, and influencing the spread and control of wildfires.
All species of fresh or salt-water fishes (finfish), as well as crustaceans, mollusks, sponges,and other underwater organisms that are considered part of the fishery resource. Exclusive of marine mammals, reptiles, and seaweeds. Inclusion (or not) of sea turtles is now decided in each case.
Fish, Game (sport fish)
Those species of fish considered possessing sporting qualities on fishing tackle. Examples of freshwater game fish are salmon, trout, grayling, black bass, muskellunge, walleye, northern pike, and lake trout.
Fish, Rough
A non-sport fish, usually omnivorous in food habits, but not prized owing to poor flavor, excessively bony flesh, or inappropriate behavior for anglers.
(1) A system to produce fish and fish-related benefits (and to minimize losses and disproducts) from the structure, dynamics and relations of the aquatic biota, the aquatic and adjacent habitat (the watersheds), and the human users of the resource. (2) The licensed premises upon which breeding, hatching, or fish-rearing facilities are situated.
Fishery, Marine
Three zones (1) estuaries at the the mouths of streams and rivers (fresh and salt water), (2) coastal waters over continental shelves to depths less than 200 meters), and (3) offshore waters above continental slopes (200-300 meters deep) and deep ocean basins (3000-6000 meters). (from notes of Dr. E. D. Prince and Dr. R.T. Lackey)
A young, fully-feathered bird in the nest.
An overflow, high stream flow, or inundation that comes from a river or other body of water and causes or threatens to cause property damage.
Flood, Annual
The highest peak discharge for a stream in a water year.
Flood Basin
The flat land area actually covered by water during the highest known floods. It is between the valley sides and the river banks and commonly contains heavy soils and limited or swampy vegetation.
Flood Frequency
A relationship showing the probability that floods of a certain magnitude are equaled or exceeded in any year; or a similar relationship between flood magnitude and frequency of such magnitude being exceeded.
Flood Hydrograph
A continuous record of stage and discharge, over time, produced only for the periods when the water elevation exceeds the chosen base.
Flood Peak
The maximum volume of flow attained at a given point during a flood event.
Flood Plain
That portion of a stream valley, adjacent to the channel, which is built of sediments during the present regimen (i.e., the state of equilibrium between a stream and its ability to transport sediments) of the stream and which is covered with water when the stream overflows its banks at flood stages. No simple, absolute flood plain commonly exists. As a consequence, flood plains are delineated in terms of some specified flood size (e.g., the 50-year flood plain -- the area that would be flooded by the largest stream flow that will, on the average, occur once within a 50-year period). The largest, absolute flood plain that is ever likely to occur is sometimes referred to as the flood basin. The minimum area included is that subject to a one- percent (100-year recurrence) or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
Flood Stage
The water surface elevation above some chosen reference level at which overflow of the natural banks of a stream begins to cause damage in the area.
The total plant life of an area at a time. "Vegetation" is more limited, usually meaning the large vascular plants.
Flow Currency
In systems ecology, the particular form of matter or energy that flows between ecosystem components. Common flow currencies are carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, heat, and, in economic systems, dollars.
Flow Diagram
A technical, working diagram to show the structure of a system in terms of the flow of matter or energy, information, state variables, controls, etc. These diagrams may be used as information organizers and as bases for simulation models. In a multiple flow diagram, the simultaneous, often interdependent, flows of a number of different materials are shown.
Flow Duration
A computed relationship that shows the percentage of time that specified daily discharges were equaled or exceeded in a stated number of complete years.
Flow Duration Curve (Duration Curve)
A graphical representation of the number of times given stream flow volumes are equaled or exceeded during a certain period of record.
Irregular variation in characteristics of a population; variations in number of animals over time with irregular amplitude and/or period.
An accumulation of water that is removed suddenly from cities or surface-mined lands by heavy precipitation. Such water may contain contaminants in sufficient concentration to result in pollution of the receiving stream.
Living in, or pertaining to, or produced by streams and flowing waters.
Routes regularly used by several species of migrating birds (4 North-South routes in the US).
Freedom of Information Act.
Growth of leaves on a tree or other plants.
A mode of thinking, feeling or acting common to a people or to a social group-especially a social habit that has not been rationalized or given ethical force.
Food Chain
A series of spatially associated species, having feeding relations, each of which lives (at least in part) as a predator, parasite, or absorber of the next lower down in the series. "Food chains" are not isolated sequences but are interconnected. Such a pattern is called the food web.
Food Web
Feeding relationships between all the species occurring in a community, showing where each species obtains its food and what other organisms derive their food from it.
All non-woody plants (grass, grass-like plants, and forbs) and portions of woody plants (browse) available to domestic livestock and wildlife for food or harvested for feeding. Only a portion of a plant is available for forage if the plant is to remain healthy.
Forage Acre
An acre with a theoretical 100 percent cover of forage. A concept used to estimate grazing capacity.
Forage Acre Requirement
The amount of forage, expressed in forage acres or fractions thereof, needed to sustain a mature grazing animal for a specific period without injury to the range resource.
Forage Area
In habitat evaluation models, the percentage of a Habitat Analysis Unit not considered hiding cover or thermal cover.
Forage, Green
Range forage consisting of all available and palatable live plant material and dead tips of growing grasses.
Forage Production (Forage Yield)
The weight of forage that is produced within a Designated period of time on a given area. The weight may be expressed as green, air dry, or oven dry. The term may also be modified as to time of production, e.g., annual.
Forage, Unavailable
That which livestock cannot graze (for any reason).
Any herbaceous plant other than the graminoids (those in the Gramineae (true grasses), Cyperaceae (sedges) and Juncaceae (rushes) families), i.e., any non-grass-like plant having little or no woody material within it.
A prediction of future conditions and occurrences based on the perceived functioning of a system. A "forecast" differs from a projection, which is also a prediction of future conditions and occurrences, but a projection is based on an extrapolation (usually graphical) of past trends.
Foreground (Visual Distance Zone) -
That part of a scene, landscape, etc., which is near the viewer (between the observer and up to l/4 or 1/2 mile distant). The surface patterns or objects and visual elements are important in the "foreground" portions of views. In the foreground, observers are able to relate themselves to the size of individual visual elements (such as a tree) and are able to begin to sense their scale relationship to the landscape. Aerial perspective is absent or insignificant in the "foreground", and the intensity and lightness or darkness of colors are seen in maximum contrast. Wind motion in trees or on grass can be seen in this close-in area but seldom beyond.
(1) A community dominated by dense, extensive tree cover. (2) An area managed for producing timber and other products, or maintained under woody vegetation for such indirect benefits as protection of watersheds or recreation. (3) An area within an administrative boundary of a forest agency, whether having trees or not.(4) Land primarily devoted to trees.
Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-378); (88 Stat. 476-480) (Humphrey-Rarick Act, Resources Planning Act, RPA)
In recognition of the vital importance of America's renewable resources of the forest, range, and other associated lands to the Nation's social and economic well-being, and of the necessity for a long term perspective in planning and undertaking related National renewable resource programs administered by the Forest Service, the Secretary of Agriculture shall prepare a "renewable resource assessment"; shall prepare and transmit to the President a recommended "renewable resource program"; shall develop and maintain on a continuing basis a comprehensive and appropriately detailed inventory of all National Forest System lands and renewable resources; and shall develop, maintain, and, as appropriate, revise land and resource management plans for units of the National Forest System, coordinated with the land and resource management planning processes of state and local governments and other Federal agencies. In addition the Secretary of Agriculture may utilize the assessment, resource surveys, and program prepared pursuant to this act to assist states and other organizations in proposing the planning for the protection, use, and management of renewable resources on non-Federal land. The assessment shall include but not be limited to (1) an analysis of present and anticipated uses, demand for, and supply of the renewable resources, with consideration of the international resource situation, and an emphasis of pertinent supply and demand and price relationship trends; (2) an inventory, based on information developed by the Forest Service and other Federal agencies, of present and potential renewable resources, and an evaluation of opportunities for improving their yield of tangible and intangible goods and services, together with estimates of investment cost and direct and indirect returns to the Federal government; (3) a description of Forest Service programs and responsibilities in research, cooperative pro grams and management of the National Forest System, their interrelationships, and the relationship of these programs and responsibilities to public and private activities; and (4) a discussion of important policy considerations, laws, regulations, and other factors expected to influence and affect significantly the use, ownership, and management of forest, range, and other associated lands. The program transmitted to the President may include alternatives, and shall provide in appropriate detail for protection, management, and development of the National Forest System, including forest development roads and trails; for cooperative forest service programs; and for research. The program shall be developed in accordance with principles set forth in the Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of June 12, 1960, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.

In developing and maintaining land management plans for use on units of the National Forest System, the Secretary shall use a systematic interdisciplinary approach to achieve integrated consideration of physical, biological, economic, and other sciences.

Establishing forests naturally or artificially on areas where it is now absent or insufficient.
Forested Wetland
An area characterized by woody vegetation over 20 feet tall where soil is at least periodically saturated with or covered by water.
Forest Fire
Any fire on forest land which is not being used as a tool in forest protection or management in accordance with an authorized plan.
Forest Highway (Legal Definition)
A forest road under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority and open to public travel.
Forest Land
Land at least 10-percent occupied by forest trees of any size (25-percent tree canopy cover) or formerly having had such tree cover and not currently developed for non-forest use. It includes land formerly having had such tree cover (e.g., recently burned or harvested) and that will be naturally or artifically reforested. Lands developed for non-forest use include area for crops, improved pasture, residential or administrative areas, improved roads of any width, adjoining road clearing, and power-line clearing of any width. Minimiium requirement is 1 acre of at least 100 feet width.
Forest Land, Capable
Forest land which is capable of growing industrial crops of wood at or above a minimum biological growth determined from research. This classification includes accessible and inaccessible, stocked and non-stocked land. Typically annual growth of 20 cubic feet per acre per year or greater.
Forest Land, Capable-Deferred
Capable forestland that has been legislatively Designated or administratively Designated not to be used awaiting further decision (e.g., inclusion in a wilderness area).
Forest Land, Capable-Reserved
Capable forestland which has been legislatively withdrawn or administratively withdrawn from timber production on a permanent basis (e.g., classified as a Wilderness Area).
Forest Land, Non-capable
Forest land which is not capable of growing industrial crops of wood at least at the minimum biological growth potential of 20 cubic feet per acre annually. Forestland non-capable is classed as land not suitable for timber production. See Forest Land, Unsuitable.
Forest Land, Suitable
Land that is to be managed for timber production on a regulated basis.
Forest Land, Unsuitable
Forest land that is not managed for timber production because (1) the land has been withdrawn by Congress, the Secretary, or the Chief; (2) the land is not producing or capable of producing crops of industrial wood; (3) technology is not available to prevent irreversible damage to soils, productivity, or watershed conditions; (4) there is no reasonable assurance that lands can be adequately restocked within 5 years after final harvest, based on experience; (5) there is at present, a lack of adequate information to respond to timber management activities; or (6) timber management is inconsistent with or not cost efficient in meeting the management requirements and multiple-use objectives specified in forest plans.
Forest Land Use Plan
A plan that gathers and coordinates the direction to be followed in the overall management of a forest. Included in plans are applicable national and regional management direction. Planning area guides, and management zone descriptions (optional), forest coordinating requirements, basic assumptions, the forest situation statement, planning unit identification and priority for study determination, unit plans and maps, and other necessary graphics.
Forest Management
(1) Giving the forest the proper care so that it remains healthy and vigorous and provides the products and amenities the landowner desires. (2) Technical definition: The application of technical forestry principles and practices and business techniques (e.g., accounting, B/C analyses) to the management of a forest.
Forest-Wide Management Requirements
A set of statements which defines or indicates acceptable norms, specifications, or quality that must be met when accomplishing an activity or practice under a given set of conditions on a forest.
Forest Plan
A long-range plan for managing Designated forest lands. This plan will provide management direction for all management programs and practices, resource uses, and resource protection measures on these lands.
Forest Range or Grazable Woodland
Forest land which naturally or through silvicultural actions will support, at one or more stages in secondary succession, an herbaceous or shrubby understory that provides forage suitable for grazing or browsing animals.
Forest Service NEPA Procedures
The Forest Service policy and procedures for implementing the National Environmental Policy Act NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations as described in Chapter 1950 of the Forest Service Manual and Forest Service Handbook 1909.15, Environmental Policy and Procedures Handbook as published in the Federal Register.
Forest System Roads
Roads that are part of the forest development transportation system, which includes all existing roads, as well as other special and terminal facilities Designated as forest development transportation facilities-
Forest Type
Groups of stands of similar character and species composition, due to given ecological factors, differentiated from other groups of stands. The type is named based on the dominant, usually commercial, tree species existing in stands.
Forested Forage
Sometimes used in habitat evaluation models to describe forage area within forest stands that are neither hiding cover nor thermal cover. Valuable forage is often found in defined cover areas.
The total system of managing and using for human benefit the natural resources that occur on and in association with land with trees.
Format Statement
A set of computer language statements used to modify the standard format of output of a computer.
A computerized linear programming system of the U.S. Forest Service used for developing and analyzing forest-planning alternatives.
Fragile Lands
Those land or water areas containing ecosystems, possibly but not necessarily rare, that are sensitive to external stimuli which may disturb their normal functions, resulting in system change or loss.
Fragile or Historic Lands
Areas where uncontrolled or incompatible development could result in irreversible damage to important historic, cultural, scientific, or esthetic values or natural systems which are of more than local significance. These lands include shores of rivers, lakes, and streams; rare or valuable ecosystems and geological formations; significant wildlife habitats; and unique scenic or historic areas. This is one of the three types of areas of critical environmental concern. The other types are renewable resource lands and natural hazard lands.
Fragility (Environmental Fragility)
A quality or state of being expressing susceptibility to ill health or harm; the relative ability of resources to tolerate sustained use without degradation of the resource base (i.e., lowering productivity or desirable resource quality). "Fragility" applies to those resource types or locations that are more or less susceptible to degradation under the presence of whatever use categories have been considered in the evaluation process. For example, areas of vegetation-covered sand dunes may be characterized as being "environmentally fragile" for off-road vehicle uses, whereas beaches or un-vegetated dunes may be said to be "environmentally durable" for the same uses.
Framework Studies and Assessments (Type I Plan, Level A Plan)
One of the "levels of planning" for water and related land resources planning by Federal agencies whose activities involve planning and development of water resources as contained in the Principles and Standards of the Water Resources Council. "Framework studies and assessments" evaluate or appraise on a broad basis the needs and desires of interested people for the conservation, development, and utilization of water and land resources; identify regions or basins with complex problems which require more detailed investigations and analyses; and may recommend specific implementation plans and programs in areas not requiring further study. They address Federal, state, and local means of implementation.
Free Range
Range open to grazing regardless of ownership and without payment of fees; not to be confused with open range.
Frequency Index
Any measure of the likelihood of encounter of a particular species during a specified sampling procedure.
Frequency, Species
The proportion or probability of samples in which the species occurs.
Killing trees by making a series of cuts around the bole and applying an herbicide to the wound. Frilling or girdling may be used to reduce the density of a stand, kill individual undesireable trees, or create snags or dead and down logs for wildlife.
Frost Heave
Pushing up of a soil surface by the accumulation of ice in the soil.
Any material that will sustain a wildland fire.
Fuel Break
A strategically located strip of land, normally 100 to 400 feet wide, where fuel has been reduced or modified; used as a safe location from which fire fighters can attack and control a fire. or a wide strip of land with a low amount of fuel in a brush or wooded area to serve as a line of of fire defense and usually covere3d with grass to provide soil cover. It may contain a fire break in the center.
Fuel Management
The practice of planning and executing treatment or control of any vegetative material which adversely affects meeting fire management direction based upon resource management goals and objectives.
Fuel Treatment
A rearrangement or disposal of natural or activity fuels to reduce the fire hazard. Natural fuels are living and dead vegetation materials consumable by fire.
Wildland vegetation materials that can burn. While usually referring to above ground living and dead wildland surface vegetation, roots and organic soils such as peat are often included. In rural settings, anything that can burn.
Full Service Level
A level of recreation operations, administration, and maintenance under which resources and facilities are fully protected and the recreation experience of visitors is enhanced.
Full Use
The maximum use that can be made of a range during a grazing season without inducing a downward trend in range condition.
Functional Planning (Activity Planning, System Planning)
Establishing the specific management actions to be taken in managing a single or separate resource or activity. This is undertaken only to provide details for implementing a general plan involving multiple resources and activities, e.g., it may include production scheduling or transportation plans, any one element of a comprehensive plan. Plans that do not consider all elements of a comprehensive plan may be considered as functional plans. Functional plans are sometimes referred to as comprehensive for the particular element involved, such as a "comprehensive open space plan."
Functional Cover
Hiding cover allows elk to use areas for bedding, foraging, thermal relief, wallowing, and other functions year-round. Hiding cover may contribute to security at any time, but it does not necessarily provide security during the hunting season. Hiding cover is a requisite of elk habitat and a component of security. Hiding cover alone does not provide security during the hunting season.
Plants that lack chlorophyll and derive their nourishment directly from other organisms (parasitic fungi) or from dead organic matter (saprophytic fungi). They include molds, yeasts, mildews, rusts, and mushrooms.
Any mammal species or individual sought for its pelt or fur.
Fossil charcoal suggesting past presence of grass or forest fires.
Unlike a scenario which is constructed for examining specific causal relationships or to aid in making a specific decision, in planning, a "future" is an all-inclusive description of what it is believed the planning region will be like if a possible plan or course of action is followed. Their use is to try to understand where existing trends will lead if they continue. Once the trends are understood, it is possible to use them to move in a number of desired directions, as in the analogy to a sailboat and wind. In order to create a vision of the future of a region it is necessary to understand the forces that are working on that present system. To fail to understand these trends is to fail to understand the options that are open to a region.

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Last revision January 17, 2000.