Rural System's


The Fishery

Toward benefits from fish populations in ponds, lakes, and streams ...        

draft and under development


1. Get a Rural System Pond Analysis done for each pond.
2. Revise or restore the pond(s) to achieve desired conditions.
3. Study benefits list to confirm reasonable additional involvement, financial or otherwise (such as enhancement for recreation, safety, wild terrestrial faunal population benefits, or increases in fish abundance or diversity).
4. Request Rural System Fishery (see information below) advice for involvement in that enterprise on your enterprise environment.
5. Request information on Healthy Streams (see below) opportunities and schedule a discussion with Rural System staff.

Information and Diagnostics

Your Pond(s) - Reports from the field made by The Land Force and advisors

The Rural System Fishery


Healthy Streams - The Enterprise

See the interactive unit on Ponds ... Understanding Pond Shape.

see: History note.

Stream and River fishery ... be careful out there The Virginia Advisory

The Real Sub-system

Rural System works toward unified Crescent Management, a freshwater and coastal, fresh- and saline-water resource management, bringing decision aids for lands and waters as they provide the forms and functions serving up many human benefits, deep groundwater to high climate, within ownerships, if well managed without major interuption, from the upper watersheds to the deep coastal zones. From the broad to the specific, Rural System works for stable high quality and adequate quantity drinking water, partially to achieve objective 1, but primarily to reduce diseases, inmprove family health, and significantly reduce annual deaths, costs, losses, inefficiencies, and risks of parasites and diseases and their cumulative effects on residents, nearby people, local aquatic food sources, and healthful food preparation.


We work down the fundamental list of benefits (below) held for Rural System's scope. Many are personal; some "priceless," and counted as unspecified "extras" in the valuation of any pond.

The fish at $3 per pound and 20 pounds average taken per year is $60 value and over over 30 years of pond good-fishing life amounts to gains of about $1800. Assuming at least 10 ponds under management within or near a cluster, the returns: $18,000.

A pond near to a house or insured farm structures typically reduces insurance (a gain to the budget) by about $100 per year, $3000 over a 30-year economic valuation year of the fully functional pond.

Reasonable recreation-time value per hour is estimated at least $5.00. With fishing during about half a year (25 weeks and 2 days per week for about 3 hours per day: Total 150 hours per year, thus the equivalent value is about $750 and over 30 years, about $22,500. The individual farm pond fishery is reasonably at least worth the sum of the above numbers: about 60 + 100 +750 = $840 per year. Affiliation with Rural System has to at least triple that conservative estimate and significantly reduce your pond-related losses.

Preliminary basic estimates for cooperating land owners in clusters are about (840 x 40 ponds) = $33,600/ year. Additional gains are made from the business components listed below.

The Rural System Fishery

See Freshwater

The Fishery is proposed as a subsystem of Rural System devoted to improved natural resource management and thus gain many other benefits. It seeks to move the latest knowledge about freshwater fishery and aquatic resources out into the world, to resist the sub-optimum. The Fishery includes all of the parts of that concept now included by modern experts, a whole system producing an array of specified human benefits from fish populations and many related things, some only remotely related.

The financial potentials are suggested in recent numbers from Pennsylvania:

Studies: The work of The Fishery within The Rural System includes doing studies on as well as actively influencing pollutants, costs of production, habitats, effects of logging and mining, harvests, perceived benefits and an almost-endless array of other factors, all to enhance fish numbers and their quality, but especially human benefits. It includes preventing problems, developing water and populations, maintaining programs, monitoring, enforcing the law, planning and administering the enterprise. Much more than "Fishin'," it includes the waters, the landscape effects, fish, watersheds, wildlife, boats, marketing, equipment, sales, outlets, education, economies, research, administration ... and more, the collective sources of profits if within a well managed system.

The Fishery is based on the observations and a premise that adverse environmental conditions such as high insecticide levels, excessive turbidity levels, and great changes in water quality and depths can prevent native fish reproduction in ponds, lakes, and reservoirs. Increasingly evident, public waters, with limited management, cannot supply the apparent desired amount of angling in sufficient quality. Increasingly, people seem to enjoy simply knowing that abundant healthy populations of fish exist. Knowledge about this can become part of the fishery experience.

Field studies may now involve using a sedative for handling fish in research. The immediate-release sedative authorization for AQUI-S 20E for field use represents one step in the approval process for an immediate, positive impact on field-based fisheries management activities throughout the country.Fisheries professionals may access AQUI-S 20E by signing up to participate in USFWS-AADAP INAD 11-741. For more information, please see the full AFWA press release (), or visit the USFWS-AADAP website (from Fisheries Vol 37 No 10 October 2012 437)

To sustain fish for angling, hatchery fish are used and this will become increasingly important. Fish, however, must be placed in quality waters and used by quality anglers. There will be new needs for hatchery fish, some three times more than now available, and some hatcheries are now closed. Independent construction has slowed; the time for management of the present ponds with introduced fish seems to be upon the people of the region.

The Fishery is responsive to problems seen in the past in relating environmental studies to fish, fishing, and angler satisfaction. It has been difficult to make these relations, to tie them to other resource interests, and to make analyses of the data collected rapidly, and then to deliver them rapidly before decisions are to be made. Ponds are dynamic so data taken today may not reflect conditions tomorrow. Owners and anglers' values change as surely as the ponds themselves. Pond models used by The Fishery reflect rational robustness and use heuristic approaches, a reasonable confidence level, a reasonable standard of accuracy, conditional standards, and present networks or sets of likely outcomes. The Fishery has been formed to assist in meeting these changing heeds. Creating a modern, sophisticated regional freshwater fishery is its task and opportunity. The first major work of The Fishery is in:

The total system concept is not well known or widely understood and advancing it and its implications is part of the Rural System concept. "Stocking fish" or "setting seasons" are such trivial ideas in the context of the above that they hardly need more than a second thought. They may be done, but their emphasis in the past (and regrettably, probably for the near future) will be greatly out of proportion to their significance.

There is much discussion about the meaning of the words fishery, fisheries, and fisheries management. We shall not resolve the problem of definition but we do operate on the philosophy that we are managing an important natural resource system. The freshwater system is managed for perceived human benefits. Sixty million Americans fish. There are many limits or constraints to management but the total benefit system is the topic of that action. Usually fish- or aquatic-organism-oriented, the system is unbounded and includes soil, water, economics, and other topics. It is not a "fish" system. Our fundamental beliefs are that there are many groups of people with at least one interest (actual or potential) in one or more parts of the system.
Fertilization affects available fish food and light penetration into pond waters. An unfertilized pond, Harrisonburg Lee Hatchery, is in the lower image.

There is not just one thing to do and do well. There are many fish species and many situations . . . but probably even more types of people with various interests in The Fishery. The match-up of The Fishery is that among

There is a large set of objectives to be achieved by the managers and these must be for many groups or types of people, the animals themselves, for their environment, and the environment of the pond or stream reach.

In the U.S. there are 50 million anglers and they are increasing. They spend about a half billion days fishing. Doing this, they spend $24 billion. Half of these expenditures are trip related, $3.7 billion equipment related, and $5 billion boat related. All of this action generates $20 billion in worker earnings and supports over 900,000 full-time-equivalent jobs. Subsistence fishing is likely to increase.

The Fishery may have many components and activities. For example:

Like a deep coal seam, The Fishery of the region is untouched. It has great potentials for profit as well as secondary benefits to the region and the state wildlife agency. It is of a type and scope that falls outside the normal operating procedures of district fish division personnel of most state departments of wildlife. We estimate 40 ponds can be brought into a single managed system within or nearby a cluster.

There are major problems ahead for the urban dweller gaining timely access to angling opportunities, equitable use of the resource and increasing pollution. In October, 1999, a Conservation Biology article said that freshwater species are dying out as fast as those are in the rainforests. Since 1900 at least 123 species have been lost from North American waters, and the study predicted a continuing loss of about 4% of the remaining total every decade, unless the trend is arrested. Almost half of all freshwater mussels, a third of the crayfish, a quarter of the amphibians and a fifth of the fish could die out by 2100. Perhaps worldwide in scope, the above figures nevertheless suggest important work ahead within the region.

The Fishery is operated as a comprehensive enterprise, a for-financial-gains division of Rural System, Inc. Positive net gains are used to improve the total fishery of the land, other ownerships, and the world. Allocating these "profits" internally will be computer-aided.


Few people know the angling potentials from Lake Moomaw near Covington, Virginia or Claytor Lake near Radford, Virginia

The income flow is conceived from the work of an industrious, gains-oriented, service-producing staff and will be from the following activities and products. (These will vary by season and years, especially in the start-up period, and may reflect the personality of the staff employed more than the local markets and current demands.) The potentials include:

1. Fish photos and Photo books
2. Magazine sales
3. Public water and company fishing maps
Mosby photo, 1961
Weed control in ponds can be difficult.
4. Lectures
5. Honoraria, contributions, and tax-related reductions
6. Pond construction
7. Pond reclamation
8. Fee-fishing program
9. Pond and lake baseline studies for legal protection
10. Regional Landsat pond and lake surveys
11. Pond analyses, computer-aided
12. Computer systems marketing (systems to help optimize pond and stream design and management)
13. Watershed analyses (See the following computer-produced map showing probable site specific monthly precipitation and temperature (October) essential in watershed analyses and ecosystem work.)
14. Water chemistry analyses
15. Groundwater analyses
16. Water budgets for farms
17. Cages for caged fish held in ponds
18. Water for conservation plans
19. Pond, lake, and stream security
20. Riparian restoration
21. Wilderness stream tours
22. Stream volunteers group
23. Stream and river-reach baseline monitoring
24. Special fish projects
25. Insect identification (aquatics and fish food; see The Butterfly Band)
26. Stream and river analyses
27. Stream monitoring
28. Stream restoration
29. Stream analysis education kits
30. Art
Dr. Unity Powell with a nice catch on Lake Moomaw. Photography is very much a part of the angling experience and it can be enhanced.
Photographer opportunities
32. Education units (computer aided instruction)
33. Superior fishing day analyses and reports
34. Guided tours (regional, national and international) 35. Fish watching sport promotion
36. Fishing tournaments and contests of many types
37. Casting tournaments
38. Fishing equipment
39. Boat sales potentially
including a locally built boat
40. Regional "fish-feed" carnival
41. Gourmet fish sale
42. Native pet fish business
43. Bait and lure sales
44. Scientific reports
45. Workshops and conferences
46. Insurance
47. Life-list building groups and activities (for native fish as well as international projects)
48. Grants and contracts for research, studies, and management
49. Algae harvest for domestic animals and garden mulch mats
50. Nature study area advice
51. Bridges and culverts (consulting as well as contractual work)
52. Acid rain monitoring
53. Trout-beaver interaction planning and beaver pest damage reduction
54. Mollusc inventories
55. Planting stock (nursery) sale for riparian areas
56. Analyzing pond and lake site suitability
57. Promoting improved care, processing, and consumption of fish (menus, etc.)

With national reductions in public support for federal fisheries programs, there are excellent opportunities to employ outstanding fisheries experts and to create an internationally recognized center of fisheries systems work. The emphasis is on systems and the definition in the first sentence of this document. Fisheries research centers now exist that are not likely to be surpassed. These have achieved excellence in select areas of fisheries work. In few places is there a powerful, committed, rational group at work, computer-aided, synthesizing the incredibly large and complex literature and making it work on the land and in the waters of Rural System

The following are brief comments and ideas on what is planned for The Fishery:

1. Create and operate a rapid-analysis and rapid-prescription writing system. In the computer are the equations and messages. Based on forms filled out by pond owners or by staff, a report (the Owner's Manual) will be sent (for a fee) telling how to solve problems or improve pond management. A staff analyst may then approach potential clients and cooperators for detailed analyses and prescriptions.

Pond and pasture, Craig Co, September 2002
2. Market and sell pond management and stream-management consulting services to all mining, agricultural, and other firms in the area. These services can be in permitting procedures, but many ponds exist for which advice is needed just to improve their overall role. Demonstration streams, lakes, and ponds can be built or identified for people interested in contracting with Rural System and for others.

3. There are many ponds in the county. These are often unmanaged and do not achieve their potentials as esthetic resources, as a component of a fishery, or in the other purposes
Dr. Unity Powell and M. Leon Powell prepare for angling on Lake Moomaw near Covington, Virginia
for which they were intended. Rarely do they approach their potentials. We operate a pond management program; manage ponds for land owners; charge for fee fishing; supply a percentage of profits to lake owners; diversify fishing opportunities (pricing quality of the experience); and provide employment of several varieties (including inspections and monitoring). Research may be supported from profits. Our principles of pond management are available below.

4. There are thousands of unpublished fisheries reports. These can be secured from government sources and published or republished, especially if grouped in unique ways or if provided the "cement" of a computer program showing the practical results of putting 2 to 5 ideas together. These programs can be used on site, used with clients, and sold with reports to those interested. The programs will open doors to fees since few owners will want (or have competence) to use the programs delivered. In some cases, noted writers can be brought to the area, commissioned to write specific fisheries papers, and these sold. A staff writer may be employed to produce a steady stream of camera-ready, low-cost publications.

5. By contacting the state judiciary, it may be possible to secure funds paid by industries in fines resulting from stream pollution. These fines (as Allied Chemical was instructed in the kepone pollution incident in Virginia's James River) could be used in the enterprise for research on inventory systems, pollutant and coal effects, land use practices, fish and groundwater interactions, development of a regional fishery, and many related topics. (A list will be supplied on request.)

6. The staff can seek contracts and grants from many sources. They may locate and suggest waters for research by university faculty.

7. The staff may create a system by which contributions are actively solicited, typically for Rural System Without much detail, and with fear of sounding trite, the system should include "capturing" school children's interests by them buying a square meter of lake (allowing them to relate personally and, hopefully, for a lifetime), supplying information to contributors, conducting tours and having areas sufficiently pleasant and rewarding that people desire to contribute to its upkeep. Efforts will be to relate people to fish groups, to lakes or streams, to problem areas and to cater to sub- group interests. Aquaria, glass-bottomed walkways over lakes, etc. are ways to inform as well as to seek personal attachment to the land and The Fishery and the work it does. Contributions from sporting clubs and others and the positive feedback from naming a stream rock-face or a stream reach for a contribution seem feasible.

8. A highly efficient work crew, a "stream attack force" - perhaps summer-employed youths in a low-cost work camp environment-can be made available for costs for stream reclamation in the region.

9. A source of fish-related art objects might be maintained and sales sponsored. Painters and sculptors might be commissioned to work on the area themselves, become part of tours conducted, and their objects sold. These objects can be used to build nature appreciation and that for interactions (e.g., fish-insect-plant).

Prize fish like this trout from Lake Moomaw are a challenge and can unite people in care and concern for the waters of a fishery.
An organization called the Anglers may be created with each member seeking progress along 10 steps or stages of angling competence. The organization would collect membership fees, give deductions in fees on all related fishing areas, and all would be pushing toward high knowledge of fisheries, fishing efficiency, care of the land, fishing ethics, ecology, camping, woodcraft, fish life history, fish identification etc. This is not a meeting-oriented group (though an annual convention might be considered, especially for fees from displays by manufacturers, etc.) or politically oriented group. It helps provide a mailing list, outreach, memberships, fee promotion, consciousness (hats, badges, car stickers, T-shirts, boat stickers etc.). Most importantly it seeks to put a significant number of well- informed, resource users out on the land, getting far more than the average person gets from every unit of fish-protein produced. A special program is planned for attracting and supporting female anglers.

11. Tours can be conducted for anglers but there is a need for a specialized staff to advertise and get corporate decision makers and natural resource managers in on highly efficient, clearly-cost-effective, 2- and 3-day intensive sessions on the full meaning of a fishery. At respectable fees, groups can be brought to and housed in or near tract facilities, taught actively in-doors, then taken on bus tours of ponds and streams to maximize learning, i.e., significantly changed behavior per dollar of their investment. Contacts for later service are an evident secondary result.

12. Angler conferences (off-site) can be sponsored. Once expertise is gained, these conferences can be managed for other groups for a fee or they may be sponsored with fees.

13. Bird lovers build life lists. They seek to see as many different species as possible. Serious birders will fly around the world to get one or two additions to their life list. Fish life lists are almost unknown. There is a rich fish fauna in the area. The Fishery can emphasize this new sport, provide publications and aids, help introduce it in the region, sell opportunities to gain, for example, 3 new species in that stream, 2 new ones in this stream, 1 in that pond. An entire new nature sport can be created. Obvious candidates may be Anglers (but they should be separate programs). Rules will be worked out, and there are license problems with seining for a new minnow and seining for fish. These can be resolved through proper efforts, including a special license (i.e., membership in this group of life-list builders). Computer records can be maintained; a newsletter can announce new leaders in the list; notices about where new species can be readily gotten; tours taken to allow a bus load of people to get 5-10 new species with one seining or electro-shocking activity.

14. A special boat (new or one with a distinctive local style) can be constructed using many local materials by workers in a pole-shed environment. The workers will employ computer-aided design, and the boat will be uniquely suited for local fishing.
The boats can be marketed nationally and sales supported by the many visitors to the area. Built by trained craftsmen or women, these unique boats will be used in research and other activities of The Fishery. Intensive use of such boats in mapping ponds and lakes with GPS and making GIS maps of waterways will help market them.

15. An extensive bait enterprise can be created.
Rin Irvin's 55 gallon freshwater aquarium, 2005, photo by Rin Irvin
16. Opportunities seem abundant for aquarium sales, equipment sales, and standard custom service (like that of a lawn care or business-office plant-care group). It's been estimated that as many as 26 million Americans keep aquarium fish. Many people are interested in fish but do not have the time or have not developed the enthusiasm to devote to the aparatus fish, ecosystem, or the fish themselves. A native fish society has grown and opportunities exist for (with permits) to house native pet fish...the almost unknown "minnow". Heating elements and generators for power-outage will be needed for winter periods. Many areas of the US have great diversity of fish species and many are very colorful and have fascinating life habits.
photo of Rin Irvin's 20 gallon reef aquarium, 2005 photo by Rin

photo of Rin Irvin's Blue Ram, Microgeophagus ramirezi,
Many are endangered and for some, advanced aquarium work can be essential for survival.

There are needs to teach people about the dangers of releasing (or flushing) pet fish into the wild.

Rin Irvin's aquarium and Picasso Trigger, Rhinecanthus aculatus, , 2005 photo by Rin

Conservation of native fish is of growing interest. (see Northwest group)

There are many Internet sites, suggesting related equipment, apparel, and food sales. Options exist for water garden fish and fish care. For example, the tropical catfish, Plecostomus, can spend summers in a US pond but must be brought inside before the fall chills water to below 50 degrees. Predaceous fish, e.g., bass, require both water depth and small fish to feed, thereby ruling them out as pet fish. Some native species such as minnows or blue gills can be adapted to water garden life.
Rin Irvin, Porcupine Puffer, Diodon holocantus, photo by Rin, 2005

17. Fisheries research is badly needed, worldwide. Fisheries research, using the full range of activities of the area and the net monetary gains from The Fishery can be significant. The research effort from such funds can build staff and facilities. It can encourage visitors and conferences that will use or feed into other Rural System system activities and interests. Visitors can bring new ideas, techniques, and computer programs that can be rapidly sent to the field by the activities and contacts outlined above.

In Science (November, 2003) in State of the Planet Martin Jenkins wrote:

"Available information suggests that freshwater biodiversity has declined as a whole faster than either terrestrial or marine biodiversity over the past 30 years. The increasing demands that will be placed on freshwater resources in most parts of the world mean that this uneven loss of biodiversity will continue. Pollution, siltation, canalization, water abstraction, dam construction, overfishing, and introduced species will all play a part, although their individual impacts will vary regionally. The greatest effects will be on biodiversity in fresh waters in densely populated parts of the tropics, particularly South and Southeast Asia, and in dryland areas, although large-scale hydroengineering projects proposed elsewhere could also have catastrophic impacts. Although water quality may stabilize or improve in many inland water systems in developed countries, other factors, such as introduced species, will continue to have an adverse impact on biodiversity in most areas. " "Prospects for Biodiversity" Martin Jenkins, Science Nov 14 2003: 1175-1177.

See and

Later, contact Charlotte Burnett Lucas, former New River watershed manager, State Dept. Conservation and Natural Resources. (retired August, 2003)

Deer Lake below Crawford Knob in Nelson County, Virginia. Such small lakes and ponds may collectively, when managed as a system, contribute significantly to the values of rural lands and to many well-described natural resource and wildland benefits.
Contact Ronnie Powers, president of Friends of Claytor Lake

See; book: Monitoring Stream and Watershed Restoration Philip Roni, editor (2005)

See new textbook(2006)

See Wisconsin fish identification unit.

See International Fisheries data base, UN FIGIS

See Brook Trout strategy of the organization

See Env. Poll., 2007 145:104-110 for the "artificial mussel" a 6 2.5 cm Perspex tube containing 200 mg of Chelex-100 a chelating agent that collects heavy metals from water flowing through the tube for several weeks. Use it in pond/lake monitoring of water quality. Uptake is proportional to environmental concentrations and their bioavailable fractions are well reflected (as indicated by a mussel)

See Physical Nature of Lakes

See Bronmark, C. and L-A. Hansson. 2005. The biology of lakes and ponds. Oxford University Press 596pp.

Aquatic Invasive species

Alaska fishery seems strong (Science, Sept, Oct. 2008) when those who harvest a sea are guaranteed a share of the bounty rather than having them compete to see who can extract the most the fastest. A quota share system needs to have included disciplined system of scientific recommendations on catch limits, catch monitoring, setting aside fish habitat, and protecting forage fish.

See probably useful underwater camera 2009

Healthy Streams - The Enterprise Rural System's Business Plan Notes for

Healthy Streams: A Modern Fishery

Practical and Lasting Stream Improvement

A unit of Rural System

Healthy Streams is a proposed subsystem of The Fishery. There are other major linkages in The Trevey and in the main web site.

See The Fishery chapter in Rural System...Just Dreaming? and

Draft Business Plan - Healthy Streams

Executive Summary:

We propose to create an enterprise that profits from analyzing, restoring, and continuing to manage small streams on private lands in a region of Virginia. We characterize and document our work and provide the landowner with certificates that can be sold to a specialized stream-mitigation credit bank. We work with such banks or we propose to initiate and manage the development of a mitigation bank with many stream, riparian, and wetland credits.

Developers in the region may significantly modify streams in their construction and are required under law to mitigate those changes or losses. They can avoid such losses, make changes on-site, or they may buy credits from the above-named bank. The credits certify that within the relevant watershed and/or region of Virginia a stated number of linear feet of restoration (dimension, pattern, and profile), and/or linear feet of enhancement (in-stream structures, bank grading, bioengineering, matting, and re-vegetation) have been developed by Healthy Streams. Habitat types (riparian hardwood forests, wetlands, etc.) present are specified as required for some mitigation.

We shall offer to highway, airport, railway, governments, and other developers who impact streams credits. Developers now need under national and state laws and personal concerns and "green" policies stream mitigation. We supply guaranteed full credits under Corps of Engineers and DEQ standards.

We market to private landowners, showing direct economic returns to them from our action, stream improvement for personal use, improved livestock returns, reduced soil losses, improved groundwater recharge, an improved fishery, improved wildlife habitat for many species, enhanced scenic and land-sale value, reduced risks (flooding, suits, etc.), and access (if interested and under contract) to several funding sources within Rural System related to streams and nature study.

We differ from related groups in years of experience, fundamental knowledge, available software, GIS developments of stream and watershed characteristics and surrounding lands, moving to carbon credits on same areas, having ancillary work units for later development, having a concept for the future enterprise (this being a "startup" of one department or division).

The enterprise develops streams on private lands. These superior streams can then be used to mitigate nearby losses of streams to developments such as highways that tend to destroy stream reaches. The enterprise may offer other related activities for the landowners contacted that provide additional income.

The services of VT Knowledge Works for small business development/acceleration have been engaged..


The regulations creating the conditions of out work and the need are as follows:

62.1-44.15:23. Wetland and stream mitigation banks.

A. When a Virginia Water Protection Permit is conditioned upon compensatory mitigation for adverse impacts to wetlands or streams, the applicant may be permitted to satisfy all or part of such mitigation requirements by the purchase or use of credits from any wetland or stream mitigation bank in the Commonwealth, or in Maryland on property wholly surrounded by and located in the Potomac River if the mitigation banking instrument provides that the Board shall have the right to enter and inspect the property and that the mitigation bank instrument and the contract for the purchase or use of such credits may be enforced in the courts of the Commonwealth, including any banks owned by the permit applicant, that has been approved and is operating in accordance with applicable federal and state guidance, laws, or regulations for the establishment, use, and operation of mitigation banks as long as: (1) the bank is in the same U.S.G.S. cataloging unit, as defined by the Hydrologic Unit Map of the United States (U.S.G.S. 1980), as the impacted site or in an adjacent cataloging unit within the same river watershed or it meets all the conditions found in clauses (i) through (iv) and either clause (v) or (vi) of this section; (2) the bank is ecologically preferable to practicable onsite and offsite individual mitigation options as defined by federal wetland regulations; and (3) the banking instrument, if approved after July 1, 1996, has been approved by a process that included public review and comment. When the bank is not located in the same cataloging unit or adjacent cataloging unit within the same river watershed as the impacted site, the purchase or use of credits shall not be allowed unless the applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Department of Environmental Quality that (i) the impacts will occur as a result of a Virginia Department of Transportation linear project or as the result of a locality project for a locality whose jurisdiction crosses multiple river watersheds; (ii) there is no practical same river watershed mitigation alternative; (iii) the impacts are less than one acre in a single and complete project within a cataloging unit; (iv) there is no significant harm to water quality or fish and wildlife resources within the river watershed of the impacted site; and either (v) impacts within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are mitigated within the Chesapeake Bay watershed as close as possible to the impacted site or (vi) impacts within U.S.G.S. cataloging units 02080108, 02080208, and 03010205, as defined by the Hydrologic Unit Map of the United States (U.S.G.S. 1980), are mitigated in-kind within those hydrologic cataloging units, as close as possible to the impacted site.

B. The Department of Environmental Quality is authorized to serve as a signatory to agreements governing the operation of mitigation banks. The Commonwealth, its officials, agencies, and employees shall not be liable for any action taken under any agreement developed pursuant to such authority.

C. State agencies and localities are authorized to purchase credits from mitigation banks.

D. A locality may establish, operate and sponsor wetland or stream single-user mitigation banks within the Commonwealth that have been approved and are operated in accordance with the requirements of subsection A, provided that such single-user banks may only be considered for compensatory mitigation for the sponsoring locality's municipal, joint municipal or governmental projects. For the purposes of this subsection, the term "sponsoring locality's municipal, joint municipal or governmental projects" means projects for which the locality is the named permittee, and for which there shall be no third-party leasing, sale, granting, transfer, or use of the projects or credits. Localities may enter into agreements with private third parties to facilitate the creation of privately sponsored wetland and stream mitigation banks having service areas developed through the procedures of subsection A. (2007, c. 659; 2008, c. 173.)

Additional guidance was supplied in a memorandum 02-2012from the Commonwealth of Virginia, Department of Environmental Quality, Water Division Titled Determination of Service Areas for Compensatory Mitigation Banks From: Larry G. Lawson, P.E., Director, July 12, 2002

When a Virginia Water Protection Permit is conditioned upon compensatory mitigation for unavoidable impacts to surface waters, including wetlands, the applicant may be permitted to satisfy all or part of such mitigation requirements by the purchase or use of credits from a wetlands mitigation bank that has been approved and is operating in accordance with applicable federal and state guidance, laws or regulations. This guidance clarifies how DEQ reviews and determines the service areas for proposed compensatory mitigation banks pursuant to statutory requirements and the Virginia Water Protection Permit (VWPP) regulation. In addition, the guidance addresses how DEQ reviews a compensatory mitigation proposal for permitted wetland impacts to determine if use of a mitigation bank is appropriate. (Please contact Ellen Gilinsky, Virginia Water Protection Permit Program Manager, at 804-698-4375 with any questions about the application of this guidance.) >

The Perceived Market Condition

A recent quote: from :

"The current mortgage banking crises and snowballing recession crushed residential development, a field that used to provide 30% of mitigation banker's business. With developers now unable to sell housing, this former readymade market for mitigation credits dropped to zero, eviscerating nearly a third of bankers' business, Lewin said. "On the up side, said Lewin, ever the optimist, bankers have the opportunity to buy potential mitigation sites at bargain prices. And they still have buyers. Transportation and other infrastructure projects make up the remainder of the bankers' business. This stands poised to expand, Lewin noted. President-elect Barack Obama named improving the nation's infrastructure a priority for his new administration. By doing so, the President-elect said, the nation would not only shore-up its aging bridges, roads and tunnels but would also improve the ecology and provide essential jobs that could jump start the economy. This strategy could generate a huge demand for banking credits."

Past Work

Elements of our proposed work proceeds from:

  1. Early concepts about such a group (without the mitigation bank)
  2. An alternative concept of the riparian volume, one of the stream in all dimensions, above, below, and both sides
  3. A plan for a fisheries group that includes active use and development of streams primarily for angling but with many other dimensions
  4. Crescent ( book chapter) describing an alternative view of watersheds and thus the modern sophisticated management of them, strongly related to GIS analyses of areas and stream flows
  5. Plans for specialized development of walnut vales on many streams of operation, developing an enterprise in clusters of walnut orchards and their development.
  6. Developing our own or affiliate nurseries for supplying needed planting stock such as for willows (bank-side plantings and later floral sales)
  7. A sycamore tree specialty for floral, wildlife, and stream stability.
  8. Species specific management of muskrats for financial gains and bank-side stability
  9. Trail systems to accompany nature study and assured biomass surveys 10. Groundwater enhancement (with estimates for the owner)
  10. Silt-plain development and protection (highwater silt feeders to protected areas)
  11. Biodiversity lists for mollusks, minnows
  12. Analyses of the stream and nearby areas as a platform and consequences of that.
  13. Unique emphases on stream structure with Pool emphasis, Stairstep form (notes and papers from Dolloff), using wooden pallets in headwater stream (stairstepping), simple bridges and fence crossings, flags (for marketing and user information)
  14. Water quality and standard and base for comparison (turbidity, temperature, etc.)
  15. Website and video clips and Blog posts for all properties under management
  16. A very efficient well-equipped fencing crew
  17. Specialized livestock watering sites (for weight gains and increased milk production)
  18. Metal GPS point and cache at each stream
  19. Education units for employees and others.


Marketing will be through newspaper and magazine advertisements, a web site and blog building a social network, contacts and advertisements through Trout Unlimited, and contacts with the Conservation Management Institute and the Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. A website URL, Healthy Streams, seems available. Later marketing will become part of planned marketing within Rural System. Marketing may be widespread.


A competitor of the proposed enterprise may be the State agency. A few consultants exist but they have been regional and in the eastern part of Virginia. They may become cooperators. The work and interests of Britt Boucher, Blacksburg, Foresters, Inc., may be explored.


With the marketing staff results, a field person visits a stream owner and signs a contract to develop or improve the stream, bringing it into a desired condition to meet legal requirements and those if the company. With our crew we plan and implement a stream improvement. We announce the availability of such improved stream lengths within our "bank" (or the lengths within banks of others) and offer them as available for mitigation. Developers (e.g., of highways and causing stream loss) then buy units from the bank to meet mitigation needs and requirements when streams are to be destroyed or impaired by government or other projects. After banked unit sales, we contact the land/stream owners to suggest alternative fishery and Rural System enterprises for their involvement.

Personnel and Finance

Significan business and personal insurance will be needed. The field work is dangerous and involves slippery conditions, use of power saws, drills, and motorized equipment in planting stream banks, fencing, building stream steps, building and repairing stream crossings.

Loan applications

Capital equipment and supply list

Other costs will be in

to be completed
C. Balance sheet
D. Breakeven analysis
E. Pro-forma income projections (profit & loss statements)
F. Three-year summary
G. Detail by month, first year
H. Detail by quarters, second and third years
I. Assumptions upon which projections were based
J. Pro-forma cash flow


The objectives of the enterprise are diverse stream-related benefits and profits from meaningful work:

  1. to stabilize and enhance existing streams of Western Virginia (expanding later) that meet high standards of structure,function, and relations to their surroundings.
  2. to repair, restore, and enhance streams that do not meet owner- or goverment- sanctioned requirements and standards for healthy streams or their water quantities or qualities.
  3. to provide knowledge about and services to create high standard streams of qualities and quantities that will mitigate stream losses within each of the legally-specified regions/watersheds.
  4. to stabilize and enhance the quality of streams for anglers.
  5. to provide advice and services for landowners for gaining economic advantages from their streams and associated environments and profitable entries to other groups within Rural System.

The Streams

The enterprise deals with total stream systems, a major part of which is the total fishery, only one part of which is its geographically-focused, scientifically-based work to protect, restore, and enhance the freshwater stream aquatic habitats ... and the watersheds upon which they depend.

We know that stream watersheds are very variable. Each watershed, stream, and reach is probably unique. To study a group of such basins is to encounter extreme variance in most statistics. Fish assemblages are variable and vary over time. They are dependent upon highly variable food supplies, many being substitutable. The food assemblages are highly variable among seasons and years. To detect differences in fish or fish food in a stream watershed resulting from a timber harvest or change in range management is unlikely, largely because of the variabilities listed above. Logging effects are largely a function of surface topography (as well as the loggers activities). To generalize about such effects will be difficult for it will require many streams and many years of data to account for the variations known to occur. Williams et al. (2002 ) said that for just such reasons they could not detect logging effects on fish assemblages.

As we study streams, we find some that need restoration, that is change not to an historic condition but to a condition meeting many standards of health, i.e., temperature, sediment load, structure, biological life, oxygen level, and low toxic substance levels. Typically these together form an expression of the quality of faunal space for game fish but it may and should deal with the spectrum of potential stream benefits and services, the suggestions of "success" in stream "improvement."

More generally, we seek fairly natural or primitive conditions and a rich stream fish community, one that we view as a desirable condition. We expect high variance in fish richness and abundance within stream reaches. We therefore continue to study and seek to express precisely the objectives related to stream recovery and subsequent stability and productivity of many benefits. (These may be biological, but probably include riparian volumes conditions, topographic, shade, economic statements, and expressions of human satisfaction.) While scientific foundations are needed for decisions, there are other dimensions of accumulated experience as well as anticipated financial gains that need to be articulated in plans and project descriptions. These views of the future need to be described and included within the project plans for a stream for they are needed for later analyses of project successes.

The Profit Equation: Gains and Reduced Losses

We propose providing analyses of the economics of stream ownership and restoration for owners.We provide a monetary estimate to both financial gains from stream and riparian stabilization and especially an estimate of financial losses foregone and net gains. The losses reduced by our actions may exceed the gains that the owner may not see or be aware. We partition the costs and benefits from upstream improvements (i.e., real change (over a 30-year investment period) from investment in the stream) in a computer-aided selection of actions to address:

  1. peak flow structural damage (foregoing probable average flood $ loss from a 50-year flood)
  2. sediment not eroded from riparian volume (acre feet of top soil at current sale price)
  3. sediment in water (reduced meat value from cattle watered with less than clear water) (recent local research)
  4. water quality improvement (at average rate of municipal "water purification" per gallon)
  5. stream fish watching (probable recreation hours at federal recreation rate/hour)
  6. reduced litigation costs (authenticated biodiversity stability or improvement)
  7. firewood increase in the managed riparian space ($/cord)
  8. timber growth from site index increase in managed riparian space ($/1000 bd ft).
  9. bird watching in riparian space (birdgolfing )
  10. fire protection (insurance equivalent)
  11. miscellaneous intermittent uses
  12. probable ground water ( est minimum value of pure municipal-equivalent water ($ per gallon of pure water) from a well at the farm entrance of the stream)

Secondary connections for products and enterprises likely to be offered the average stream/land owner are:

We ignore angling because streams are small and predicting angling intensity on variable streams is too costly. Other activity of The Fishery will be included.


The following diverse notes are from an interview with Dr. Louis Helfrisch, 3-5-1996, a fisheries extension specialist for 15 years in Virginia and once acting-head of the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences at Virginia Tech. Some comments relate to ponds only.

The Set of Actions and Practices from Which Selections are Made for Each Unique Stream

We describe the strategies for implementing restoration and subsequent stabilization or management. We make clear the consequences and likely gains and benefits from restoration. Dynamics of the stream and benefits are estimated.

We develop and use evaluation, monitoring, and feedback systems.

The company will develop standardized sub-systems to deal with the technology and transportation for each of the following major processes and actions:

  1. Stream Monitoring (Stolnack et al. 2005)
  2. A public blog
  3. Impact analyses
  4. Regulations - fishing, license, laws related to private owners, fee fishing (license/fee permits), enforcement on private ponds, posting, and trespass
  5. Private land streams and publically-stocked fish regulations
  6. Insurance for and related to the liability of owner and users of pond, boats, caught fish
  7. The cost of an improved stream - production foregone in having one; the tax on an equivalent size area; the land value with and without an improvement
  8. County-specific fish lists from state data base with description and ecology (available from Internet or from a CD)
  9. County specific stream profiles - full scale ecological and other descriptions with GIS and cross-section descriptions -- The Tributary reports.
  10. Description of services/ opportunities
  11. Sales of photographs, GIS images of streams and watersheds
  12. Running public lectures on streams and their fishery.

The Healthy Streams Concept

Herein I attempt to clarify a set of related concepts and to develop an entire concept for Healthy Streams, a group of people working in a competive environment to restore or improve streams in western Virginia (or similar conditions) and to manage them for the good on landowners and profits for Healthy Streams (a unit of The Fishery) as well as for the many benefits that can be developed from such activity. Herein I point to the the nature of the imagined water related enterprise already described in my November, 2007, e-book Rural System...Just Dreaming?, Chapter 21. I abstract the Crescent concept, one that replaces the "watershed," and replaces the limited concepts of the stream or the riparian areas with the notion of the working volume. I narrow attention to the volume as a profitable management entity but immediately wish to discuss its practicality that only exists with a concept of clusters of land ownerships, many streams being developed and managed within reasonable distance of each other. To this I add expansions of Rural System ideas on and around the improved and managed stream, for the typical stream-side owner will be able to experience more financial gains than those simply and directly from the managed working volume. There will be diverse related enterprises of Rural System than can be integrated into the farm plan for each stream owner for long-term benefits, including financial gains.

"Improved" Streams

We take "mitigated" to mean "balanced out" or that after an action (e.g., replacing a stream with a highway segment) and mitigation there is no net loss of stream structure, function, and relations.

In some areas volumes have to be protected from livestock (cattle, bison, goats). Their action removes or tramples vegetaion, causes channel aggradation, or degradation, widening or narrowing or incising channels, changing stream morphology, and lowering ground water levels.

Volume management reduces non-point source pollution to "a level compatible with water quality and related riparian stream goals" (Clary and Webster 1998). These are "actions" in the set of objectives described by Giles to achieve benefits balanced over the long term (150-years sliding forward each year). The objectives implicit in Volume management are

See McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company A Handbook for Stream Enhancement and Stewardship 2005

See a valuable recent (2007) Internet unit on streams

See: Corps of Engineers Guidelines.


We propose to continue to discuss the meaning and implications of the concept of health. We take it as a word for interesting discussions and for theory building and testing. We do not ascribe to a particular definition, stating it is a word for a concept that needs discussion and multiple perspectives for understanding.

It leads to questions about overall stream conditions relative to their context, their productive potentials, whether they are sustainable (and what that might mean), whether they can exist within an unhealthy watershed or crescent, and whether native richness in the spring of each year is an appropriate criterion. The appropriate periodic assessment is an essential question for the many, highly variable stream characteristics and conditions. Can a healthy stream exist in an unhealthy or stressed condition (post wildfire, insect or disease outbreak, or tornado ... or unusual or unique condition with severe changes as a biological invasion)? Can predicting "stress agents" change predict perceived disease or unhealthy conditions?

Conversations tend to move to changing existing conditions (whatever they are) to restoring functions and conditions or moving them to a specific state, not some ambiguous natural state based on reference communities or pre-settlement interpretations. We work toward predicting values of functions, naming repetive causal mechanisms, and modeling structures and processes as they are likely to change over reasonable future time.

There are exciting times ahead around Healthy Streams.


The gains in water development of all types have raised living standard and fueled economic prosperity for large segments of society. "However, we have failed, nearly across the board, to measure the true costs of this infrastructure development -- in particular the lost goods and services due to the serious and steady decline in the health of freshwater ecosystems...

"The name of the game in 21st-century water management must be integration of ecological health and ecosystem services into water planning, policy, and management." Sandra Postel, Global Water Policy Project, 2009.

Virginians have given lip service to water being the basic resource. Worn phrases on the value of water, the quantities used, and complete human dependence upon it are abundant everywhere. What has been said to be important and what important has been done on the land are unequal. The words are far more impressive than the action. There are exceptions in this broad view of water and land but they are few. The topic of watersheds or their management is frequently given cool reception or the conversation quickly turns to so-called watershed laws. Aldo Leopold decried this attitude in "The real substance of conservation lies not in the physical projects of government but in the mental processes of citizens," I once thought that the management of the source of water was so important that it must be thoroughly understood by everyone, from park sitters to successful agriculturists and miners. I thought that mental processes must be cultivated so that all citizens understood waters sources and their management. I no longer think that for past efforts when the population was smaller failed. The topic is too complex, the resource apparently too abundant, the risks unperceived, and relevant personal action obscure or minimal. I now believe that only private water-related enterprises (perhaps with agencies) can possibly understand, develop predictions, and implement restoration and controls for the future. As always, citizens in a properly functioning democracy need to realize their part in allowing and authorizing "physical projects," especially those projects effecting water resources.

The Given Condition

We have been unable to select among the conflicting theories of erosional history of the Appalachian region as outlined by Thornbury 1969:231-232). There are likely to be several forces at work including: (1) major peneplanation (Bascom 1921, Ashley 1935) including the next forces, (2) no peneplanation but modern processes working on rocks of unequal resistance, and (3) uniform down-wasting of rocks of near uniform resistance. Thornbury (1969:232) suggested the surfaces are very late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. Ver Steeg (1942), Mackin (1938), Meyerhoff and Olmsted (1936), and Wright (1942) have also discussed the prysiography of the region and its causes.

Diamond and Giles (1987) presented their best interpretation of settlement conditions of the land surface, its vegetation and major fauna. Wildfires had to have been abundant but effects on extensive mature stands can only be guessed.

After settlement, forest were destroyed for fuel, coke, housing, railroads, and to eliminate them for grazing lands and farming. Farming practices were extensive when worked by slaves and grazing and farming practices were highly erosive.

The Resource

We see the stream within a volume (described below) as a natural resource, and evaluate it in terms of our special list of classes of sought-after human benefits (as well as failed opportunities, losses, and risks). We recognize and discuss the growing literature on ecological services but see these as often mixed with, inseparable from, derivatives of and confused with the quantifiable or measurable benefits in the following list:

  1. Services - watering, scouring, building fluvial soils, bedding fish
  2. Products - drinking water, swimming water, fish, scenes
  3. Structures - channels, the stream as a real-estate structure, banks, fish egg beds
  4. Events - fishing, water sports, skating, swimming
  5. Opportunities - gaining hydro power, recreating and touring, irrigating, fire-fighting
  6. Views - component of landscape scenes, photography, ice scenes
  7. Information - geological history, past climates, erosion rates, baseline data
  8. Ideas - energy, new uses, effects of stream sounds, challenges: e.g., an alternative to "succession" in streams and rivers?
  9. Inspirations - poetic inspiration, history and the future, religious symbolism
  10. Memberships - a new Healthy Streams group and social network
  11. Memories - visits, photographs, TV clips, tours, special events, discoveries made

The technical aspects of watershed management are quite complicated but the basics are within reach almost of everyone. It is oversimplifying to say that good soil, forest, and wildlife management are good watershed management. Truly enough, people seldom go out and "practice watershed management" like they might "plant a forest" or "establish a wildlife food planting. "Watershed management is an integral part of every sound land resource practice. It must be a basic consideration in every wise decision on land use. Watershed management then becomes a personal responsibility for everyone who uses land. Failing the mandate, watershed management like other resource responsibilities, cannot be left to individuals.

The Watershed of Crescent Management

A watershed is a scooped or trough-shaped piece of land in which most water, snow, hail ... any precipitation falling , is perceived to drain ... to a single channel. That size may be less than an acre up to many thousands of acres. The lands that drain to the stream channel and the stream form a watershed. A little thought immediately discloses that every unit of land is part of a watershed. These statements add up to the structure for or one basis for a total, sound program of watershed management that may ultimately reach the national, even the world goals of wise land use.

Computer map of digitized watershed boundaries and streams.

The usual objectives of watershed management are to provide required yields of high-quality water and to prevent the damage of floods. Herein we propose to add dimensions of increasing or stabilizing water quality, reducing risk, and minimizing costs to achieve that concept. There are two apparently opposing major objectives. On one hand, the need is to produce good water, on the other, to control it and prevent flooding. In Virginia, as throughout the nation, there are areas of critical water shortage. On such areas increased water production is demanded from the watershed planner. There are also areas flooded annually. These demand less water, greater protection. The solution to such an apparent dilemma may be reached by informed citizens and the actions of watershed managers but the conflicts have beset humans through the ages. They are present and increasing.

Elevations and major streams can be displayed as here for Floyd County, Virginia, and this image as part of a larger watershed within which mitigation practices must be certified.

Management herein means controlling a system to achieve human objectives cost effectively.

The Past

What has been wrong with watershed management in the past? What has produced present water problems? People have falsely rationalized that:
(a) water is closely linked to climate,
(b) people can do nothing about the climate, and thus, a + b, people can do nothing about water. The governmental projects of the Civil Conservation Corps and the Corps of Engineers seemed to do something with water, and the Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resource Conservation Service) had one of the first big "break throughs" in an active program of watershed management.

McPhee (1989) discussing the history of efforts in river control observed "for the Mississippi to make such a change was completely natural, but in the interval since the last shift Europeans had settled beside the river, a nation had developed, and the nation could not afford nature."

In 1982 individual farmers interviewed felt that they should be responsible for controlling erosion and agricultural non-point source water pollution. However, some 60% thought that governement should play an importnat role by providing technical and financial incentives (parent and Lovejoy 1982).

"Improved" Streams

We take "mitigated" to mean "balanced out" or that after an action (e.g., replacing a stream with a highway segment) and mitigation there is no net loss of stream structure,function, and relations.

In some areas volumes have to be protected from livestock (cattle, bison, goats). Their action removes or tramples vegetaion, causes shannel aggradation, or degradation, widening or narrowing or incising channels, changing stream morphology, and lowering ground water levels.

Volume management reduces non-point source pollution to "a level compatible with water quality and related riparian stream goals" (Clary and Webster 1998). These are "actions" in the set of objectives described by Giles (2007) xxxxx. al to achieve benefits balanced over the long term (150-years sliding forward each year). The Type xxx objectives implicit in Volume management are

See McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company A Handbook for Stream Enhancement and Stewardship 2005

See a valuable recent (2007) Internet unit on streams

See Corps of Engineers Guidelines.


The Need for linked Computer Models and GIS as Aids for Cost Effective Work

Lack of information on water, soil, and then plant and animal relationships has slowed watershed management progress. Still the foremost obstacle has been, and continues to be, getting a public "sold" on the need for it, and educated as to where, when, and how it can be done. It is overly optimistic to believe that the general public, even the basic land users, will become adequately informed in all fields of resource conservation. It is therefore imperative that the well educated resource worker - the forester, the soils expert, the wildlife manager, the staff of Healthy Streams - gain a comprehensive knowledge of watershed management so that he or she may advise properly and integrate its principles into all of their recommendations.

Gaining a comprehensive knowledge is very difficult in any field, particularly one as complex as watershed management. Having all resource worker with such knowledge is a mere dream.
Part of the Clearfork watershed, Eastern Tennessee, map by Michelle Mockbee, 2009
The only option available for reducing poor decisions, avoiding counterintuitive results of decisions about the land, and improving water management is a highly practical educated staff using a highly accessible, dynamically improving computer system for assistance. Such a system with a small group of highly expert advisors and workers can make significant changes in the way lands and waters are used and managed. They can be used at all stages of land use - from pre-planning, through daily work and reclamation, to monitoring and evaluating final developments, and making useful adaptations to local conditions.

We have developed WATFLOW, a system created by E. F. Saunders (1977) and implemented AGNPS (Findley 1991) and thus suggest this is evidence that such a system can be developed. These systems were designed to face some harsh and embarrassing realities about watershed models in general and to present knowledge about soils and water relations in managed or mined areas. Trips to the moon not withstanding, scientists do not know or cannot confidently estimate likely site specific:

  1. Overland flow
  2. Subsurface flow
  3. Sediment loss in forests
  4. Sediment loss over rough, nonvegetated terrain
  5. Distributions of the above in time, space, and stage of plant
  6. Most dimensions of water quality - toxic substances and dissolved solids amounts

In 1997 Klopfer developed GIS map layers essential for watershed models, namely those for precipitation and evapotranspiration and major forest types. Wajda had previously developed information about precipitation in the state and Gruen 1993 had developed information on temperature as had Anderson 1991 . Morton (1997) developed a statewide high-resolution land cover map for Virginia using Landsat images.

Donigan and Crawford (1976) warn throughout their description of a non-point pollution model about using first approximation values and the need for calibration. Even if all of the above were well known (and they are for a few intensively studied areas at high cost) there remain major influential factors that are almost unknown. Donigan and Crawford (1976: 165) described, for example, the variable CCFAC which adjusts the theoretical snow melt parameters for solar radiation and condensation/convection melt to actual field conditions. They noted that values near 1.0 are expected, but experience shows a range of 0.5 to 2.0, and it is very much a function of that vast catch-all "climatic conditions." Elsewhere (1976:167) they note about sediment washoff coefficients, "Limited experience to date has indicated a possible range of values of 0.01 to 5.0. However, significant variations from this can be expected."

A reason for pointing out these limitations while indicating the needs for computer models is to highlight that no individual can mentally handle the complex nonlinear relations within a watershed model. An aid is needed along with a. healthy respect for the limitations of the human mind is appropriate. A parallel need is for an attitude or willingness to make a "best guess," informed estimates to allow a total system to be created, then selectively improved. Models can only do so much -- but they can be improved and updated. They are the best available now. Decisons will be made now. No one will wait until the last watershed analysis is conducted. There are a thousand streams to monitor; there are ten-thousand times that many dollars required. The studies will not be done in realistic time!

An option is needed. The answer is relative models like WATFLOW (Saunders 1977 or AGNPS), using the best possible relations known, using the least possible inputs, using maximum computer transformation and correlation of data, producing decision aids (not simulations of "reality" but decision aids) that the manager-decision maker can take into an uncertain situation and evaluate risks, costs.) and benefits and then take action. The needs are thus for robust models (Giles 1979) those that are based on physical laws and phenomena, those that are modular so that whole "chunks" can be replaced as knowledge expands, those that are balanced or have proper regard for significant figures, and those that are sensitive to thewide variety of changes possible in a multi-factored system, i.e, one that can be plus or minus 10 orders of magnitude different even with complete knowledge! Models are needed to seek only an improvement of one-half-or-one-percent in decisions because a small percent improvement in 100 areas over 100 years is a massive change. Of course the greater the improvement, the better, but the relative perspective that includes vast areas and long planning periods is important.

Much research in watershed management is needed. Local monitoring stations are needed, but the first order priority is for a fully-operational, highly interactive, permanently in-place and operating computer system to aid the practicing field person. No wise resource worker would fail to check with such an on-line resource before responding to field needs.

It is now possible to digitize rapidly or gain from computer processing the "edges" of watersheds. These maps can become overlays with dozens of other GIS layers such as slope, aspect, land cover, soil depth, bedrock, and forest type and ownership boundaries. Such multi-dimensional maps, the product of integrating research results and modeling are needed.

We map the general greater watershed, then the one directly related to the stream on whicg we work, then in detain the working volume.

Stream Order

One analysis of streams is by their order. The attached figure shows the general numbering procedure. Where two first-order streams join, the stream becomes a second order stream. A first order stream is a headwater stream and may be dry most of the year. It can be considered as starting on the surface of the ground as a small indentattion in the land at a ridge or any upland. It is where an extremely large rainfall will start to collect. On a map it will be nothing more than a dip in a contour line near the top of the ridge. This is different from many mapping systems (and will show higher order streams on our maps than those of many other analysis which usually use only streams identified on 1:24,000 scale maps). Where two first-order streams join, the stream becomes a second order stream. It remains at that order, no matter how many more first-order streams flow into it. When two secondorder streams flow together, then the stream becomes a third-order stream. This pattern of description may continue to an ocean. The largest rivers are ninth- and tenth-order streams. (One estimate is that the Mississippi is a 13th order stream).

The interest in stream order is long-standing. Mathematicians, hydrologists, and ecologists have been interested in the pattern and have found the following relationships:

As stream order increases (in general and with few exceptions)...

  1. Stream width increases
  2. Stream surface area increases
  3. Stream depth increases
  4. Percent of the channel subsurface that is rubble increases 5. Percent of the channel subsurface that is gravel decreases 6. Channel elevation decreases
  5. Channel gradient decreases
  6. Percent of the channel in "pools" decreases
  7. Number of fish species (species richness) increases
  8. Similarity of community structure increases
  9. Similarity of animal assemblages increases
  10. Temperature increases
  11. Dissolved oxygen decreases
  12. Usually pH increases (depending on site)
  13. Carbon dioxide level decreases
  14. Level of carbonates decreases
  15. Bicarbonate alkalinity increases
  16. Turbidity fluctuation increases
  17. Turbidity, itself, decreases
  18. Conductivity increases
  19. Production-to-respiration ratio increases
  20. Physio-chemical stability increases

Factors will be added to the list and relations indicated as more knowledge is gained. Some of the above items are correlated; some seem like common sense; some are mirror images images of others. One effort herein is to suggest how much we already know (or can learn) from simple observations. Perhaps such observations can improve decisions, help understanding, and reduce risks for the landowner and manager. Besides, 22 findings from one measure from a map seems like a productive measure. It suggests payoffs ahead for unifying knowledge.

The Working Volume

The working volume is the stream channel which has length, width, and depth, thus is a volume. That volume is within a larger volume of the same lenght (with upward distance variable and defined for it is the source of water, pollutants, and fish foods; total width ( the so-called riparian zone on both sides of the stream, each being of variable width and thus the sum of them, height (at least to the tallest trees within each zone, and depth to about 2 meters below the bottom of the stream channel (the hyporheic depth). The total volume is considered as the place for stream study and health monitoring toward a desired state ... then management for the long-run (150 years. Thus the working volume had a time dimension as well.

Stream Temperature

We need regular work for several years to develop equations for stream temperature and air temperature and for upstream temperature effects on reach water temperature. These may lead to standard guides for taking stream temperatures that produce useful numbers for useful models of stream and organism responses. We know that canopy cover removals increase maximum stream temperature while adjacent harvested and unharvested streams will retain the same stream temperatures.

We know that hardwood canopy of riparian areas contributes more, and more diverse, materials to streams than conifers.

Channel Steps and the Cross-section

Channel steps formed by large woody debris and by boulders are important elements of streams. Number, interval, and heights are not likely to differ among managed or unmanaged areas. A negative exponential relationship is likely to exist between channel gradient and mean length of step intervals in the headwaters, not in colluvial-process reaches. The sum of the heights of all steps (barriers, waterfalls, fallen logs, sand bar edges) should approximate the difference in the elevation of the stream reach.

Step score = ((sum of step heights in feet) / (upper elevation of reach (in feet) - lower elevation of reach) )- 1) * 100

The step score should approximate 100 after stream improvement. The before-and-after difference will be significant. Past land use practices and gradual removal of large trees have tended to reduce the score. Increasing log barriers, even if temporary, can reduce the score.

The objective (displayed in the score) is to reduce channel lowering, V- channel formation (vs the desired U-shaped channel), and loss of groundwater adjacent to the stream edges.

Organic Debris

Logging debris can form steps and can later modify channels to form reaches that are step pools to step-steps. Removals of large trees has changes the gradient, the scour, and runout and deposition of sediment. Loss of the beaver had similar influences of pool formations and water velocities after large storms in forests.

We attempt to add carbon storage in streams and their volume to other carbon storage initiatives.

Hyporheic Exchange

The below-the-stream bottom, the underground aquatic and biological system is the hyporheic community. As other systems it has its own structure, dynamic, and relations. There has been little study except as it relates to location and survival of some fish species eggs. It is a biologically diverse world with many undescribed species. Ecological functions therein are largely unknown.

Pool step reach sequences are the major stream features driving hyporheic exchange flows.


  • Pool riffles
  • Step pools
  • Step-steps
    (Cascade down to Step-Pool)
  • Cascades
  • Rapids
  • Bedrock

The Stream Inputs and The Water Budget


Anderson (1981) analyzed temperature records in Virginia for 170 weather stations over 30 years and computed the temperatures for each 27-acre cell based on multiple regression. Independent variables were elevation and latitude. He failed to create similar estimates of precipitation because the record was so poor. Wajda 19 made progress with precipitation. There were gaps in data bases that could mean "no rain" or "not collected by an observer." There were abnormally large amounts in some rain collectors indicating that several rains had accumulated.

As critical as is rainfall in all watershed and hydrologic analyses and as expensive as it is to collect, store, and retrieve, it is a pity the record is so questionable.

Although no site-specific estimates can be made at this time, Anderson and Huq developed a data set and the means to address it for data about the nearest weather recording stations to the area being studied. A center point is entered and the report seeks nearest stations. "The nearest" weather station may be very distant. Subjective judgements about general wind patterns, topography, storm patterns, and other factors may help in estimating from the group of rainfall records amounts most appropriate for the area.

Classical precipitation is rain, snow, sleet, hail, ocean breeze, fog and dew and fog drip.

Fog drip

Fog drip has mysteriously been omitted or de-emphasized in natural resource analyses and discussions. It is the water that collects on tree twigs and leaves and drops to the ground under forests. It is not measured by standard rain guages. As fog and clouds form or sweep across an area, much water collects on the trees. There is hardly a more beautiful sight than this condensation on trees in winter when, before it melts, is called hoarfrost. Before the "drip". Every branch, twig and needle is clothed in snowy crystals. It's pretty!

Harr (1981) found that net precipitation in Oregon's Bull Run watershed was 20% more in forested than in adjacent clearcut areas. This was attributed to fog drip. Typically there is more runoff from areas of tree harvest because these areas no longer have high evapotranspiration rates of the trees.

The resource significance is great too. This drip in some area tallies 10 to 12 inches in areas where rainfall is 40 inches a year. When this much moisture is not measured (not even mentioned!), it cannot be a surprise that watershed "run-outs" never match well with the "rain-ins." In a 5000-acre watershed, a fog drip of 10 inches is about 1,260,400 cubic feet of water or 9,400,000 gallons of water. If precipitation layers go into GISs, so should an estimate of fog drip -- at least parametric estimates (high, low, and most likely) to study the picture, pattern, and consequences, if any, on decisions.

It is easy to see why it is difficult to estimate the amount of drip -- plenty of expensive gages are needed under the trees. As trees age, the collecting surface increases, then stabilizes. The surface is wonderfully dynamic and predictable. It represents, as well, a GIS land cover phenomenon. Landsat or other land cover images e.g., of hardwood and conifers are potential areas for mean fog-drip estimates. If tree cutting occurs, fog drip ceases (as does evapotranspiration of trees, etc.); no one measures the "wet" of the weedy field. The actual amount of drip may not add to the stream flow rate directly but it will surely wet the soil and change the percolation and infiltration rate of any precipitation that does occur. All sensitive water budget analyses include time since the last rain or soil wetting in the models. Soils experiencing fog drip are different than soils whose performance depends on the last rain event. Describing and simulating the dynamics of land use change, then vegetation aging, then harvest rates, then combining precipitation and fog drip is a wonderful challenge. The results can be mapped. The procedure does not have to be repeated by every GIS office, every worker.

New maps of this major changing ecological variable are likely to provide new insights into land management. Failure to include it in thoughts (if not analyses and actions) when dealing with precipitation and water budgets over large ecosystems is just silly. Including it may help unify concepts of trees, water, fish within water, fish that land mammals and birds eat, and people who like all of these wonderful, wild animals.

Dew and fog may have an effect equal or greater than precipitation. Billings and Drew (1938) said "Foggy nights or a foggy day keep bark more moist than a hard rain once a week." Such moisture affects stem flow and interception phenomena.

The total best-estimate or probable precipitation record for each stream on which we work needs to be developed for total, minimum and maximum spring and winter precipitation, and total precipitation in the growing season.

The Stream Within the Volume: Managing Riparian Volumes

Headwaters Tague and Grant(2004) successfully demonstrated that runoff from watersheds can be predicted following single precipitation events as related to major geological types within the watershed. We believe in working toward a model to include this factor along with major one for describing natural and pre-treatment conditions for comparison with post-treatment or improvement work.


Riparian "areas" or "zones" (or "gallery forests" in the plains states of the US) are vital interfaces between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that have a wide range of ecological functions and associated social benefits. There are about 900,000 such acres in the lower 48 states. Riparian means the land and community along the sides of and closely associated with fresh, unbound water. The riparian zone is the banks and adjacent areas of water bodies, rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds, water courses, seeps, and springs, the water of which provides soil moisture conditions greater than in the adjacent areas. Saline or estuary areas are generally not included. Riparian areas are said by the Bureau of Land Management to be areas of land directly influenced by permanent water.

Healthy riparian areas are ones that maintained cool water temperatures, clean water, stable banks, aquatic diversity, wildlife habitat, landscape connectivity, and water flow while providing wood, other forest products, energy, fish as food, and recreation for people (Carey et al.1999).

Riparian "zones" are usually addressed as areas but they are volumes with width, depth, height and length along waterways and sources. They are usually different on each side of the stream. Of course areas along rivers influenced by tides create a problem for a precise definition. Occasionally a salinity of 0.5 ppt is used as the dividing content, less being riverine, more being estuarine. The riparian volume usually supports vegetation significantly different from that of adjacent inland areas. It is a distinctively different aggregation of plants and animals than that adjacent to it, more influenced by wetness than dryness. Some people think of them as the ecosystem between the aquatic and terrestrial.

These areas have vegetation or physical characteristics that reflect the influence of the permanent water. Lakeshores and stream banks are typical riparian areas but certain ephemeral streams or "washes" are excluded that do not exhibit the presence of vegetation dependent upon free water in the soil.

Riparian areas (also with the silly name of "linear foraging areas") are described in many ways, mostly by their functions. Silverwater staff prefers to discuss volumes, the complex stream and the two edge areas and the geologic, biologic, and soil volume beneath the stream, and the vegetation-canopy and atmosphere (ambient temperature, precipitation, etc.) above the stream surface and edge areas. They are not ecosystems, only units to be managed well for a large set of benefits from which significant net amounts of money or equivalents can be gained. The volumes provide:

  1. values and benefits far beyond the small percentage of the land owned or occupied,
  2. hydrologic sources of stream flow,
  3. important habitats for a wide range of terrestrial plant and animal species.
  4. stabilize soil and earth banks (when well vegetated)
  5. harbor fish and supply fish food
  6. conditions and functions for instream biota
  7. special places for diverse plants and animals (especially the songbirds and furbearers for feeding, nesting, etc.)
  8. the majority of food and cover and special energy sources for animals at critical periods of their life cycle within the aquatic food chain,
  9. shade, woody debris, terrestrial litter, and arthropods for fish
  10. critical areas along migratory routes
  11. water and soil to allow or encourage vegetation growth,
  12. (when managed) quality livestock feeding and resting (protective shelter, shade, forage and water),
  13. strong influences on the structural character of stream environments,
  14. a role in gaining improved water quality, especially for downstream users,
  15. a role in building groundwater reserves,
  16. both losses and gains in sediment as water moves through them
  17. cool water (for machine and other cooling)
  18. a function of sponges, releasing water slowly
  19. reduced flood waters and lessen risks of flash floods
  20. reduced peak flows
  21. reduced energy in flood periods (reducing erosion)
  22. recreationists with cool shade, desirable scenery, serene waters, and areas for fishing, winter sports, picnicking and camping.

Throughout the US, riparian areas were dominantly influenced by beavers (Castor canadensis). There were some 60 to 400 million of them before settlers arrived. They greatly modified the flood plains of most waterways and created expansive changing sediment and organic "steps" and plateaus throughout the land. Stream channels meandered and shifted throughout these flat areas, dynamically changing since the end of the Pleistocene. Beaver removals had a universal effect of channels. It was followed by the direct but localized effects of human dam building and land use.

Efforts to manage, protect, and restore riparian areas are increasing worldwide. Management work typically includes restoring and reclaiming areas disturbed by road building, mining, logging, and fossil-energy development. Progress has been made in understanding the functions of riparian areas within individual land uses, but knowledge about the integrated functions of volumes in watersheds that have many uses of the land is still quite limited. Soil, forest, wildlife and other physical and ecological problems are many, but to these must be added legal and political or extra-volume issues. Upstream changes in the land or water can affect downstream riparian areas. Active, bold management is needed for the volumes as well as areas and volumes above and below it.

Caution is needed, however, for if riparian zones are Designated with excessive width or combined with excessively stringent inspection, very large areas can be excluded from conventional forestry or other land-use activities. Under the Northwest Forest plan of the US Forest Service, 40% of the land base was withdrawn from management because of riparian constraints alone, and parts of the remaining landscape were so fragmented and dispersed that logging and other management activity became impractical. A non-specific 300 foot wide no-harvest zone on both sides of all owned streams is an example of excessive stringency. The zones width should be a function of many site factors.

The volumes are very conspicuous in the dry areas of the western US. Large federal programs have been created for protecting and restoring these areas. The western funding attracted renewed interest in similar treatment for the zones of the eastern US. In the Eastern US, favoring conifers over hardwood species alters the nutritional subsidies to organisms in these volumes. There are species differences, but generally, the subsidy is of lower quality and quantity in conifer-cover riparian areas. Since the dust bowl era, foresters have worked to establish and manage gallery forests for production of wood and energy and for protecting animals, soil and structures from wind.

Maintaining existing high quality riparian area values before they are altered adversely by development can preserve these functions. Costs of preventing problems within them is said to be much less than repairing or overcoming them. In the event these lands have already been developed, these values can be restored by returning the land to a natural or cultivated vegetated condition.

Constructing gas and oil-well sites and roads in streamside areas results in altering or losing riparian values. Timber harvesting can significantly affect riparian volume values. The removal of streamside overhead cover can increase water temperature. Earth-moving activities such as constructing skid roads, log landings, and bridges destroy the sediment-filtering ability of the forest floor in riparian areas by removing duff and organic matter. The resulting sedimentation alters water quality. Clearing of riparian and streamside vegetation may also remove important wildlife habitat. These adverse effects can be reduced or eliminated by limiting access of soil-disturbing activities within the riparian area. When it is necessary to use these areas, additional erosion control and sediment detention can be used.

The natural functions of almost all floodplains have already been altered by constructing some facilities. Flow patterns may change, flood flows may be constricted, and the flow velocity accelerated. Such changes result in increased stream bank and channel erosion. Minore and Weatherly 1994 found that in Oregon riparian areas, conifer basal area increased with elevation, stream gradient, and time since disturbance, and decreased with latitude and stream width.

The plan, simply put, is to minimize using and disturbing the vegetated or protected state within the volume (with structures, etc.), to stabilize the current water volume, to develop potentially profitable uses that enhance (or not harm) the area, to reduce destructive forces from up-stream and surrounding water use and development, and to add to the ownership profitability.

Changes in the Volume

Streams lengthmay increase (meanders or straightening), height may change seasonally (compressed pasture in winter) and over time (shrub and tree growth as in succession or plantings or harvests), width (fencing and cultural changes) and percent coverage of area with vegetation, and depth (knowledge of the relevant hyporheic depth).


An Alpha unit is the mapped space in a designated wildland area of 10 meters by 10 meters and is the volume between fallen leaves and twigs to a depth of 2 meters. (The alpha unit used elsewhere includes the entire column, 1 km above and 1 km below the surface.) It is a volume of 200 cubic meters of solids, wet or dry, on which and within which most known life exists. It is a named surface volume.

Soil is a system and thinking about it as an Alpha unit can be misleading. The unit is dynamic, a function of its past and present and of its neighbors. It is full of diverse life and very much a function of seasonal and climatic changes. Herein we do not belabor this very important point but there may seem to be undue emphasis on singular factors within the system and not enough on the relations among them. (Recall that to write the minimum amount about the known relations within a 30 factor system, there must be at least 870 paragraphs.)

Soil to certain people is a word with specific meaning and profound connotations. It has been used, studied, described, and changed by thousands of people. We cannot master the complexities of "soil" as a concept or practical reality for the emany uses within the region. To some, soil will be a complex biological system, to others a physico-chemical growing medium, to others a platform for a house, parking lot, roadway, or satellite launch. It is a column of water and its soil basement. We address the surface medium based on recent land vegetation as cover (typically to express an organic matter estimate: nearness to water; surface geology layer (sandstone, limestone, etc.); landform; slope position; aspects; slope; elevation; and disturbed (there being no way to generalize about the admixtures existing at a site). We use these factors in map layers to describe different sites throughout the region. The Alpha unit may be a "solid" rock mass, so it will not be dealt with in conventional soil terms. Coarse fragments (pebbles, rocks, etc.) are usually not considered soil. It may be the space below a pond, river, or stream. It may be a narrow riparian zone. It may be the volume under a road, parking lot, dam, or building.

Every Alpha unit is probably unique. This is a challenging statement, but we contend that the probability of any unit being equal within 20 descriptive terms is so small that reasonable people will call them different.

On the other hand, very different Alpha units can have almost exactly equal plant or animal conditions. For example, low fertility and high moisture may produce the same observable conditions in a group of plants as moderate fertility and low moisture. This is called "equifinality," meaning that many different conditions can produce the same end condition.

Alpha units can be considered a type of classification but this will be to misinterpret the concept. They are a concept, not a thing, type, or class. They reflect a relatively new idea possible with computers. Much work has been devoted to classifying soils and mapping the classes. Now a group of factors can be listed for a specific project or need and a map can be made of where these factors within stated limits exist. This is called "dynamic classification" (Williamson 1981).

In 1982 (Ziewitz 1982) we demonstrated that a pseudosoil map can be made for a county. By concentrating on the major aspects of soil classificationm, we mapped the different areas. The major factors are:

Major geological surface strata

  1. Slope
  2. Elevation
  3. Aspects (continental air mass and solar radiation-caused differences affecting soils)
  4. Land form
  5. Land cover
  6. Nearness to (or distance from) water
  7. Texture

The first seven factors, we believe, primarily determine the notably different conditions to which crops and trees respond and which determine the physical, chemical, and biologic differences in which people are interested. They form the criteria previously used to identify soil units, "types" and other classifications. (Texture can probably be estimated as a function of the first seven factors.) Geology, distance to stream (correlated with slope), and topographic shape are the three most explanatory variables for past soil unit classification.

Mapping experts know that rarely can more than 20 colors or patterns be distinguished on a map. We noted that if we had a minimum of three gross categories for each of the six factors, we would have 729 classes or types that are known to be significantly different (because we defined each category that way!). Thus, mapping the classes differently with meaning will be impossible.

The size of the mapping unit was decided on practical grounds and these are cartographic, not functional in the field. The cartographic problem is one of scale -- the size of units and line width and also one of color and pattern on the maps. The width of a printed line on a map may be equivalent to 50 meters in the field. People cannot discriminate more than 10 shades of gray or 20 colors. The large number of types that might be separated cannot be discriminated on a manageable desk map. Regrouping was needed to make maps. Information already in hand in computer data bases was lost. The Alpha units can be used or developed in at least two ways. They can be defined as multifactor units, typically with the above seven factors included. Another use is to find conditions that are desireable (e.g., 30 places where white pine grows exceptionally well), then to have the computer analyze the conditions in the Alpha units where these trees grow -- then to make a map of all similar units (Alpha units having conditions within the limits of , or having a probability of similar conditions.)

We'll not quibble over whether we "classify" soils or not. What we do is unconventional but practical. It uses the knowledge we have and uses the available data bases. Unusual requests for "soil information" seem to arise annually. Existing soil classes do not seem to work well. They must be grouped or an appeal made such as "somewhere within this class the conditions are suitable." Computer mapping soil class boundaries has been expensive and difficult. We have avoided mapping classical soil type polygons and have used the Alpha unit.

We have developed preliminary models that convince us that general soil groups can readily be formed by computer (Hamm 1978) and these relate in meaningful ways to current soil maps. Ziewitz (1982) showed that by using GIS, maps can be made that closely approximate conve ntional soil maps. A soil map was made of a area of 100,000 ha adjacent to similar sized area. Also, a map was made by computer of a part of the area already conventionally mapped. The computer-produced maps was verified at the edges by comparison with the conventional maps and by comparison with the conventional map.In one case, comparing Alpha unit work to conventional maps as a basis for accuracy, the question advanced by a soil expert was ... perhaps we should be comparing published maps to the computer maps?

Megahan (1973) gave us preliminary insights into bedrock permeability or hydraulic conductivity, the K factor. GIS maps of surface geology will enhance knowledge of each stream condition and the processing of water within the volume. In Omernick's 1972 studies of the US, " clear relationships were found between geology and phosphorus or nitrogen in streams. Another classification scheme based on phosphorus composition of major rock types revealed only slight relationships, too slight to provide assistance in the compilation of predictive models."

The Stream

A stream does not have dynamics; only the things within and surrounding it have dynamics. "Stream" is a much too small word for something so complex. The flow rate may change daily, seasonally, and over many years. If either flow or sediment load is the topic of interest and concern, then we shall be specific about it, for we must not ignore other elements of the riparian volume within the stream. These change differently, some affect others, some are determined, others seem to occur "at random." Martin (1988) explored the geomorphology of the stream and its effects.

Ecological succession, a fairly-well predicted change in dominant vegetation over time, is known for terrestrial communities. Its emphasis is on how a community progresses or changes in vegetation stages, a specialized dynamic for biomass, structure, and species occurrence, both abundance and diversity, and has been a key concept for students of terrestrial communities (Milner et al. 2008:413). The dynamics of streams is not so clear, has too many high-variance factors, and does not have the same clear stages seem by observers of the plant community. The water of streams is a factor within that complex theory and mixing the two or assuming that they are analogous is not likely to yield new insights, theories, or testable hypotheses.

As we have come to understand streams as part of the stream and riparian volume, these small, freshwater, usually-flowing, above-ground volumes of water are very much a function of the following examples (and thus "stream dynamics" can be analyzed in terms of them):

  1. feeder streams (lower order streams)
  2. adjacent structures (affecting sunlight, wind, and temperatures, and pollutants)
  3. adjacent vegetation (evapotranspiration, bank stability, shade, temperature influence)
  4. in-stream or point-source pollution flows (volumes and contents)
  5. flow rate
  6. sediment discharge
  7. nutrients in and characteristics of water
  8. surface area of a reach
  9. sinusoidal index
  10. pool/run ratios
  11. organic debris
  12. select invertebrate populations or total sampled biomass
  13. vertebrate populations

The incentives for the owner are in improved financial gains from husbandry plus the gains from mitigation ... then the gains from the ancillary wild faunal activities of Rural System.


We address biodiversity of the Volume as well as that of the stream.


Waldon (1987) developed a procedure for analyzing presence and the dynamics of fauna within the Volume (with 40 bird species, and it may be expanded to 200 species.) A procedure addresses the total faunal community, not "guilds," or "featured species" or "indicator species."

Individual practical management suggestions are given for each species and will be available in a hypertext environment.

Individual major techniques (clearings, trails, watersheds, signs, etc.) operation will also be available in hypertext.

All species are assigned demand and relative importance by citizens. Management is done to meet these needs in feasible management zones. Supplying potential habitat over 150 years is the management task. This is done using knowledge of yield curves and ecological succession for all species. Trees are cut to achieve desired site specific conditions for each species over time so as to stabilize the faunal abundance in a cluster(but not on each site). The pattern is not unlike an area-regulated forest rotation but in the algorithm (Giles 1978 and previously used in a Pacific Northwest USFS program) developed, the "rotations" are variable and based on curvilinear succession functions.

Species-specific maps showing probable abundance will be produced and available as hypermedia. Only richness, diversity (H'), and a composite diversity index will be typically displayed in these reports. Select game species notes for the volume will be produced annually. (These can be used in news releases, recreational development, and in the community relations work. A section on furbearer management and the monetary returns from this enterprise will be included.

Clary and Medin (1993) studies birds and animals in several stream reaches and compared the effects of spring and fall grazing on the animal abundance.

Checklists for all animals in the community are provided.

A new sport of seeing all of the community's animals will be suggested. "Cross walks" within the reports and plans are provided for prey management for raccoons, crayfish management; and on angler satisfaction, minnows and live bait, and potentials of stream fish watching, riparian interests; vegetation effects on fish food and songbirds; on pest management -- on black bear, new coyote intrusions, and deer effects on young forests; and on disease - on rabies, tularemia, ectoparasites and Lyme disease.

Continuing clarification of the needed precision for biodiversity will be sought. See "Variety.")

Nielsen (1980) described the different importance of fish and angling experience to people of different ages, experience, regions, and ethnicity. Thus establishing the quality of a stream fishery must go beyond counts of fish and their biomass.

Water Quality

"The effects of water quality changes can be evaluated to the extent that water quality conditions become limits to the presence of fish species. That is, certain water quality conditions will determine which of available species can occur within a particular aquatic system" (Nielsen, 1980)
An EPA study (Abernathy, A.R. 1981) showed that urban runoff had low oxygen, suspended solids, coliform bacteria (usually associated with human excreta) in as great or greater concentrations than treated sewage effluents. It also had heavy metals and other toxic materials. Street dust, dirt, airborne particles, and debris are also pollutants. Urban runoff may contain suspended solids up to 2000 mg/l, chemical oxygen demand up to 1000 mg/l, total phosphorous to 15 mg/l, and coliform counts to several thousand per 100 mI. The urban runoff is usually low in dissolved oxygen because of the high demands of the above listed organic materials. Rural runoff shows a different problem -- high sediments, plant nutrients, and pesticides.

Most studies of the effect of low pH suggest that values below 5.5 impair ovarian development (all species). Each species responds differently to other stream quality factors and responses vary with concentrations, timing, health, reproductive condition and others. Responses may be either acute or chronic, the latter related to the species life history.

pH or Acidity

Thus, the key factors to measure are pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) temperature, and turbidity. Management is usually for a highly-preferred species such as trout with high water quality requirements and benefits are derived for other "lesser" species well suited to lower water quality standards.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

For dissolved oxygen, amounts must be above 1 mg/liter in mid summer (above 3.0 mg for bass); for fish culturists, the amount must be above 5 mg/liter.


Maximum temperatures for trout seem to be 20 C in mid summer. Others vary from between 18 and 37 C. Temperatures may vary at shallow to deep waters at the same spot. The most important impact of poorly designed logging is the increase in water temperature from the rempval of streamside vegetation. Fluctuations in water temperature are great when streams are unshaded. Shaded stream temperature varies little. The temperature change that unshaded streams exhibit can seriously effect salmonid and trout populations since both have a limited range of temperature tolerance (Sadler, 1970). In an Oregon example, clearcutting increased daily stream temperatures by 14 degreesF in August with no chang in uncut watershed. Unshaded streams are typically warmer in summer and colder in winter. Smaller streams are most effected for spawning waters are over heated.

Turbidity or Sedimentation Patric (1976) found from many studies of undisturbed forests in the Eastern US that erosion ranged from 0.002 tons/acre/year to 0.32 tons/acre/year. (One surface inch of soil over an acre weighs 113 tons.) A heavily-cut watershed in the he Fernow Forest in West Virginia lost 0.003 tons/acre/year.

Sedimentation has the following conspicuous effects that stream improvement work addresses. It:

Helvey (1981) presented equations that we will develop into field computer units that relate culvert sizes to needs for roadway and trail crossings and to carry small streams in Appalachian watersheds.

See Soil Down unit.

For suspended solids or turbidity, the criteria are very mixed for species. Direct harm to fish occurs at 10,000 mg/liter and of course there are benefits in some turbidity. A range of 0-100 is desirable for trout and some other species (80 being the upper limit), 100-300 mg/liter is where a change in fish populations is notable; and over 300 mg/liter carp and species perceived as being of lesser quality are observed.

Dissolved Solids

Dissolved-solid work must be long-term, and is methodologically difficult and expensive. Losses are highest during the winter and spring months due to large volumes of drainage water carrying high concentrations of fertilizers and absence of actively growing crops. "...Steeply sloping pastures are not important sources of nutrients occurring in surface and ground waters" (Kilmer et al. 1974:218).

Nitrogen is often the most limiting of nutrients to plant growth. It is valuable but expensive and often derived from ever-limited fossil energy sources.

Only a half of of all nitrogen fertilizer is taken up by crops. New studies in China (2010) show soil acidification from nitrogen applications. Nitrogen used more efficiently is the only known way to significantly produce more food. (Capturing livestock nitrogen through modern grazing systems is suggested by Judy (2008)). There is need to reduce loss of nitrogen to the environment. Efficiencies of 20 to 50 percent are now common; we can bring them to 75 percent efficiency by careful application to select crops, using the right equipment, several applications of the right formulations, growing season applications with attention to soil moisture and probable rains, and high organic matter in the soil.

Concentrations of 0.3 ppm of nitrogen are sufficient for the support of nuisance algal growth in surface waters. Leak and Martin (1975) found that streamwater nitrate (NO3-)was related to forest age (age since disturbance). After cutting in 6 watersheds, measures were 10.3 ppm, dropped to a trace in medium-aged stands, and rose again to 4.8 ppm. Duffy et al. (1986) found small amounts of nitrogen lost from pine stands and that over 40 percent of the nitrogen input to the forests was exported by sediments. They cautioned about the complexity of nitrogen analyses for they included NH4-N, NO3-N, and organic N.

Grazing and Pasture and Range Management The volume idea recognizes that its not the grazing system but the whole pasture/range management system that produces profits (or not). The needs are to address fertilizers, fences, water, plant cover and its control, seeding, irrigation, weeding, salt and the distributions of all of these as a single system. The volume management requires staff to work animals to keep them out of riparian areas at critical times or people to operate fencing and gate effectively.

Studies in North Carolina have concluded that classical applications of fertilizers to steep well-developed pastures result in little fertilizer entering streams beside such areas. Keeping pastures well developed and soil well covered throughout the year is a major problem for the cattle person. Overgrazing is clearly a source of soil erosion (Blackburn et al. 1987). It is widely accepted that a healthy and diverse pasture/rangeland system has a diverse wild faunal component. Recommended pasture systems on or beside our streams include components of:

  1. Carefully monitored stocking rates
  2. Monitoring forage-use rates
  3. Reserving over 50% of base forage plants (grasses and forbs)
  4. Discontinuously grazing
  5. Providing alternative water sources
  6. Providing special pastures
  7. Providing adequate fencing and cover protection areas (e.g., sink holes)
  8. Providing adequate fence gates, trail crossings, and stock crossings
  9. Periodically herd animals away from stress areas
  10. Salt outside of stress areas
  11. Increasing and improving watering sites
  12. Activating ecto- and endo-parasite-effect control strategies
  13. Reseeding as needed
  14. Protecting animals from hunters and poachers
  15. Protecting animals from wild predators
  16. Protecting farm animals in winter
  17. Controlling public access
  18. Participating in the full range of wild-fauna-related enterprises of Rural System

When recovery within the volume does not occur or is going unnaturally slowly, further changes in management practices are needed. Livestock grazing (cattle) year around is unacceptable for many reasons. Animals must be removed from stream banks to stop trampling, vegetation removal, hoof slides, and bank cave-ins ... all sediment and turbidity producers.

Reducing animal access reduces grazing/browsing on young plant reproduction and also bedding on and rubbing old vegetation. We think that at the end of the grazing season there needs to at least 6 inches of stubble or regrowth to provide sufficient forage biomass for vigor and continuing plant production. A 65% limit on grazing of current growth seems essential in spring-grazing systems. 5% limit is needed for all herbaceous forage.

Such management is site specific and based on soils, climate, specific problems, and continuing involvement (such as timing of grazing). Some grazing is probably useful in forested areas. Stocking rate and level of use is primary. Degraded areas require complete rest, some for many years.

Removal is essential after grazing, not just "rest."

For developing volumes that may be grazed we determine:

  1. grossly, whether there is a profitable livestock market within the probable cluster of Tracts. Fencing cannot be justified (afforded) if livestock raising will likely be a net financial loss.
  2. the role of the volume in relation to the other pasture and range (for the volume resources and timing of their use may beand are likely key to the total grazing) system.
  3. the level of stream depletion. (Perhaps it cannot be restored and must be replaced by culverts or major developments)
  4. the importance to other resource benefits, terrestrial fauna, recreation, fisheries
  5. if there is adequate time to meet an imposed objective
  6. the acceptable level of restoration and function
  7. the likely dynamic forces at the site


In special-case areas, as long as mining continues, the nonpoint pollution from it will mask almost any pollutants from other sources. Massive non-point pollution from other sources has a similar effect. Mining, as presently practiced, will not continue, and mining itself will eventually stop and the remaining water quality problems will then be conspicuous. It is responsible land use now to minimize water quality problems, to plan for the day the sources are drastically reduced, and to assist in developing systems for the future that will stabilize or improve the quality of life of the citizens then living in the area or using its water.


Entire courses are taught on the relations of forests in watershed and stream management. See Forest hydrology.

A Working Strategy for Improving Streams, Their Structure, Dynamics, Quality, Relations, and Profits

Heede (1977) presented a comprehensive picture of one scale of stream and whole watershed rehabilitation or improvement.

The issues facing managers and the stream improvement corporation are:

We propose to relate the literature on instream flow to our improved stream reaches (e.g., Lamb and Meshorer 1973; Bovee 1982).

Water Quality Improvements

So much has been written or said about the needs for high water quality that it seems that little more can or needs to be said. Since the actions of people deny knowledge of these needs, at least they may be highlighted here. Any one need, in my opinion, is sufficient reason or justification for working hard to improve it. Justifications:

Here are the elements of a combined strategy for water quality improvements:

Objectives are likely to include:

  1. Clarify objectives which might include the following steps to their achievement (answer for each of the following "why" before taking action. The answer is usually a higher order objective):
    1. Improve local stream water quality, stabilize its flow, reduce any flooding, improve groundwater recharge, improve general appearance or beauty, and improve fishery
    2. Enhance owners' potential profitability
    3. Support a sound sediment and erosion control law for towns and the county
    4. Conduct a varied educational program
    5. Provide a system of positive feedbacks to homeowners and others including:
      1. a - scoring or rating ownerships, yards, and other properties based on a computer-produced analysis using a form such as that in Fig..3 from a recent best management practices book
      2. b - providing public recognition for high scores
      3. c - posting an aggregate community score
      4. d - providing rewards or tax incentives
      5. e - providing signs or posters for individuals with a high score signifying contribution to water quality
    6. Provide parallel negative feedbacks (e. g., fines, public announcements, tax additions, service costs)
    7. Devise a storm-water management plan
    8. Increase and improve street sweeping (based on street dirt removed per curb-mile traveled):
      1. use vacuum sweepers instead of rotating broom
      2. coordinate sweeping with parking ordinances
    9. Reduce fugitive dust, e.g., covered trucks or wetted trucks coming into a town at a turnoff)
    10. Develop catch basins
    11. Clean catch basins frequently
    12. Develop parking lots and other areas for storm flow catchment, temporary holding, and slow release. These may be developed as recreational areas or within recreational areas. One use is temporary ice rinks and ball courts. Pham et al.(1978) studied quality of precipitation and runoff of a New Jersey parking lot and found it was a satisfactory source of water for urban trees, provided the soil had good drainage. Concentrations of most ions were not excessive and may even correct some deficiencies in the soil.
    13. Increase retention of water by:
      1. developing green areas
      2. developing road islands or vegetated areas
      3. retain water on roofs
      4. move to underground tanks for slow release
      5. use pervious pavements
      6. require a minimum percolation area for each covered (roofed or paved) area
      7. combine waste heat from city or industrial plants to maximize evaporation
      8. encourage trees to increase transpiration rates
      9. reduce any above-the-town (or development) ingress of water.
    14. Require gasoline stations, body shops, and other industrial and commercial facilities to have areas where any polluted runoff after rains will be collected, such as in holding tanks on site or nearby. These wastes may then be transported for treatment or reuse. Proper grading is required.

    We propose to develop immediately a regional map of basic potential erosion hazard for each alpha unit. This will suggest both the care with which we must work and the gains that will be made for the clients. It will help in qualify stream reaches for improvement.This map will at first have only 3 classes (based on Johnson 1990:26), a translated slope class map. The edodibility in other classification systems is mostly a finction of slopes greater greater than 35 percent. Later, based on Wood Crops and Management by Woodland Groups tables and advisors linking them to geological groups (for otherwise, official, specific soil series for each map area must be included). We shall have a unique edodibility map to show the hazards and risks of stream improvement where we have a contract. We can revise that map as we begin estimating K factors for alpha units as precisely as needed.
    Soil Erodibility Factor (K)      Basic Erosion Hazard
          Slight (1) Moderate (2) Severe (3)
           Percent Slope
           equal or less than 0.35 0-15 16-35 > than 35 percent
           >than 0.35 0 - 10 11-25 > than 25 percent

    Erodibility in some systems is increased by conditions of a past forest fire or over grazing.

    The use of the Basic Erodibility Index, examples: severe = maximum grade for haul roads is 8%.; disk only on slopes <10 percent and Basic Soil Erodibility is <0.32.

    We'll set up a program for predicting the approximate amount of erosion from forest land using Dissmeyer's and Foster's (1980) modified version of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (replacing the CP factor in the USLE). This will be essential to quantify the sources of sediment relative to our work on the stream and its effects.

    In forestry operations we concentrate on the design of and effects of building roads, skid trails, and landings and all work work near stream. Johnson said "There is a great deal of variation in the amount of erosion and sedimentation that occurs during and after logging, and this can be expected due to differences in soil erodibilities, slope, type of cut [and intensity], climatic factors, equipment usage, proximity to streams, operator care, and use of best management practices" (Johnson 1990).

    To improve water quality related to forest chemical use, we follow the recommendations of Moore and Douglas (1979) to ensure that:

    1. Chemical treatment is the best means of accomplishing the desired management objective and
    2. The timing and techniques [substance selected, amount, carrier, application technology, timing, and temperature] are such that:
      1. Maximum placement of chemical in the target area occurs
      2. Optimum exposure of target organisms is obtained with
      3. Minimum exposure of nontarget organisms.

A sediment control ordinance exists in Virginia. (Code of Virginia Title 21, Ch.1, Secs.21-8_.1 -- 21.89.15) enacted in 1972 and guidelines enacted in 1974. Modifications and alternatives are suggested in Klein (1980).

The sediment control strategies fall into broad classes of:

  1. disturb as little land as possible
  2. avoid highly erosive or erodible lands
  3. expose soi1 as briefly as possible
  4. establish cover, (mulch or vegetation) as quickly as possible
  5. give extra work and investment to the most-erosive sites
  6. use engineering structures where needed
  7. allow water to flow as little as possible, over as short a distance as possible, over the flattest lands possible, over well-protected surfaces

Outstanding Resource Waters

In some areas, the US Forest Service has Designated waters as "outstanding resource waters." That Designation ensures that on those waters, existing water quality will be maintained and protected. That could require an additional layer of review, or even curtail, activities that could affect the waters, from snowmobiling to logging to road building. Such a Designation may be useful for private lands and may suggest alternative management for these waters and related areas. These stream reaches may be mapped.

In-depth studies of streams will be encouraged and where possible every project will contribute to a computer data base. Past analyses will be sought and where feasible, added to provide each contractor an ever-increasing quality report on their stream as generalized from the common data base. See Zale and Leslie (1989) for a literature review. We explore means for dna and genetic techniques for identifying fish species presence and abundance in streams.(2014)

Litter and Vandalism

Streams are attractive for many forms of recreation. Their beauty and up keep relates to the use amounts and qualities of such stream-side activities such as camping, picnicing, and swimming. Haetwole and West 1980 did studies on beach cleanliness attitudes and the outdoor recreation literature is replete with references on litter and area care. We shall work to clear up prevention, and cleanup procedures and further develop a RRx unit on litter. We shall seek to apply the principles available of reducing vandalism at stream sites.

General Stream Description

Stream analyses will contain reports like the following:

The stream is boulder and gravel strewn, and is characterized by a uniformly concave /convex profile. Channel nickpoints (scarps indicating gradient breaks) were absent in the reaches, but very distinct gravel bars and log steps were spaced at an average of __(e.g., 7.5) feet. Logs and heavy branches from the surrounding forest were incorporated into the bed and solidly anchored into the banks. (Other comment) Only logs that acted as small dams were counted. Bed material accumulated behind the logs and gravel bars, and lowered the channel gradient above them. The detailed appearance of the longitudinal profiles of both streams was that of a stepped gradient.

Interestingly, the average step length between logs was (same/about the same/ greater/less) for the upper (steeper gradient) and the lower (gentler gradient) reaches. Random mortality of the trees was believed to be responsible for this (uniformity /or lack). Yet, when spacings between gravel bars and logs together were compared in both types of reaches, it was found that the average spacing was ___ (e.g., 6.3) feet in the upper reaches and____(e.g., 8.7) feet in the lower ones. Thus, adjustment to slope, which required shorter spacing between bars and logs on the steeper gradient, was achieved by the formation of gravel bars.

This postulate (is/is not) supported by the strong correlations between step length and median bed material size, and step length and channel gradient. Step length decreases with increasing median bed material size and increasing channel gradient. Both, bed material size and gradient, increase in the upstream direction.

From the above, it follows that gravel bars are dynamic agents for slope adjustment. This was also illustrated by the finding that more gravel bars were formed if fewer logs were available, and vice versa. The creek had an average of ___(e.g., 2.5) logs per 50 feet of channel, and ___(e.g., 53) percent of all steps were gravel bars.

Median pebble size has been found correlated well with stream velocity (model will be incorporated in automated reports).

Many computer models of a wide variety now exist for analyzing water runoff and the quality of that runoff. That water quality includes turbidity and results of erosion can produce single actions that have two or more effects (for great ecxonomies). Comparative studies of the models and their indices are underway. See Enviro Control, Inc. 1971. where early programs were listed.

Maintaining in-stream flow, a primary topic of below-dam water management, is directly related to stream quality or health, whether dam-related or related to a standard, the characteristics of the streams being mitigated.
Substrate codes
1 - Plant detritus
2 - Mud
3 - Silt
4 - Sand
5 - Gravel
6 - Rubble
7 - Bolder
8 - Bedrock
The biological criteria are primarily depth, velocity, temperature, and substrate (all address as probability functions, with substrate quantified as Wentworth-number particle size or coded substrate (at right) (Cincotta 1978, Bovee 1982, Lamb and Meshorer 1983?), ). We plan to incorporate a system for rapid approximation quantification of contract stream conditions suitable for comparison with the former stream (those being mitigated).

In Rivers for Life (2009) Postel and Brian Richter recommended a sustainability boundary, to cap the loss of ecosystem services from streams etc. It is said to maximize the total value of freshwatrer ecosystems by taking into account both extractive and instream benefits and it drives up water productivity(see Erdmann 1975 the rate at which phytoplankton and rooted aquatic plants produce oxygen) - the value derived from each unit of water removed from nature and put into use in agriculture, industry, etc.

In the appendix herein, Giles proposes The Silver Score, A Procedure for Evaluating the Quality of a Stream With Trout as a Biological Standard, A Confidential Procedure of Healthy Streams of Rural System (Preliminary draft, July, 1996, R.H. Giles, Jr.) Related techniques will be developed with computer aids for efficiencies using publications such as Armour and Platts (1983).

Working Conditions and Policies

We believe that we can achieve high accountability by:

We continue to monitor conditions, are sensitive to early warnings, recommend changes where the system is not performing as desired, and make suggestions for future actions.

We attempt to follow the safety precautions and practices outlined in the 2009 AFS AFS Fisheries Safety Handbook for lab and field safety. These safety issues include defensive driving, boating safety, electrofishing safety, CPR/AED (automated external defibrillator) and first aid training, fish handling safety (injuries from spines and fins), pesticide application certification training (rotenone and aquatic herbicides), underwater and diving safety, and laboratory safety (chemical safety, slippery floors).

We seek opportunities with American Rivers National River Cleanup program each year on contract streams.

See North American Native Fishes

Management programs for ponds and streams may still require trial and error, but certain generalizations may now be made:

  1. Biological production is likely to be highest in lakes where all the niches in the new lake are occupied, especially if fishes are present to crop the increased zooplankton. It is, however, often easier to crop fish of limited shapes and sizes in a commercial fishery, and better yields in relation to production may often be obtained more easily from lakes with simplified fish faunas.
  2. In temperate-zone lakes successful management depends on assessing growth rates and stocks of individual species, but in tropical waters the multispecific fish communities, combined with the difficulties in determining fish growth rates when there are no well-defined seasonal growth checks call for new methods of stock assessment.
  3. In tropical waters, shorter life spans, faster growth rates and earlier sexual maturity lead to a more rapid turn-over of fish populations; production is higher in relation to standing crop; fluctuations in spawning success affect populations more rapidly but the effects do not last so long; spawning seasons are extended and populations can build up very quickly.
  4. Fish production may be increased by management at any level, by fertilizing the water (only feasible in small reservoirs), or by increasing fish food, or by stocking with fish.
  5. Eutrophication, and ageing of a reservoir, leads to coarse fish production at the expense of game fish, unless action is taken to prevent this.
  6. Water level fluctuations can sometimes be used to control spawning of unwanted trash fish. However, such fluctuations affect fish foods (planktonic and benthic) as well as spawning areas, and close cooperation is needed between those responsible for the water-level regime and for fisheries management.
  7. Although introduced fish have given enhanced yields in certain cases it is essential to wait until a lake has settled down to see what niches are vacant before considering any introductions. Exotics should never be introduced without most careful studies, remembering that (1) even a good food fish (such as Tilapia or carp) or a good sport fish, can become an undesirable addition in the fauna of an alien environment, and (2) that lakes and canals made by people are allowing species to extend their range (for example the Baltic smelt has moved south through the new Volga lakes), so there is little hope of controlling alien species once they are introduced to new areas.

See aquatic organism flashcards for stream and pond analyses.

See The NC Wildlife Resources Commission's atlas of freshwater mussels and endangered fish


Anderson, D. R. 1981. A climatological information system for natural resource management: temperature. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. viii + 220 pp.

Alexander, G.R. and E.A. Hansen. 1982. Sand sediments in a Michigan trout stream. Part II, effects of reducing sand bedload on a trout population. Fisheries Res. Rep. 1902, Lansing, MI, Michigan Dept. Natural Resources, Fisheries Div. 20p.

Anderson, D. R. 1981. A climatological information system for natural resource management: temperature. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ.,Blacksburg, Va. vii + 220 pp.

Armour, C.L. and W.S. Platts. 1983. Field methods and statistical analyses for monitoring small salmonid streams, Western Energy and Land Use Team, Div. Biological Services, USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC FWS/OBS - 83/33, 200p.

Ashley. G. 1935. Studies in Appalachian mountain structure. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 46: 1395-1436.

Bascom, F. 1921. Cycles of erosion in the Piedmont province of Pennsylvania. J. Geol. 29: 540-559.

Blackburn, W.H., J.C. Wood, H.A. Pearson, and R.W. Knight. 1987. Storm flow and sediment loss from intensively managed forest watersheds in East Texas. USDA Forest Serv., Southern Forest Exp. Sta. , New Orleand, LA. Gen. Tech. Rpt SO-68. 10p.

Bovee, K.D. 1982. A guide to stream habitat analysis using the instream flow incremental methodology, USDI, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Western Energy and Land Use Team, FWS/OBS - 82/26, 249p.

Cincotta, D.A. 1978. Literature review and plan of study for instream flow needs for fish and aquatic life on selected streams within the Kanawa River Basin in West Virginia, Division of Wildlife Resources, West Va. Dept., Natural Resources, Elkins, West Va. p. 159- 240.

Clary, W.P. and B.F. Webster. 1989. Managing grazing of riparian areas in the Inrermaountain Rgion. USDA Forest Serv. Gen. Tech Report INT-263, 11p.

Clary, W.P. amd D.E. Medin. 1993. Vegetation, nesting bird, and small mammal characteristics - wet creekm Idaho. USDA Forest Serv. Intermountain Res. Sta, Gen Tech Rpt INT-293, 11p.

Diamond, S. J. 1989. Vegetation, wildlife, and human foraging in prehistoric Western Virginia. Unpub. M. S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 239 pp.

Diamond, S. J. and R. H. Giles, Jr. 1987. A vegetational history of Virginia's Ridge and Valley province. Quart. Bul. Arch. Soc. of Virginia. 42(4):177-187.

Dissmeyer, G.E. and G.R. Foster.1980. A guide for predictring sheet and rill erosion on forest land. USDA Forest Service. Southeastern Area, State and Private Forestry Tech. Pub. SA-TP 11, Atlanta, GA 40 pp.

Duffy, P.D. J.D. Schreiber, and S.J. Ursic. 1986. Nutrient transport by sediment from pine forests, USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Exp. Station, New Orleans, LA p. 57-65

Erdmann, J.B. 1975. Determining photosynthetic productivity in streams, Wang Programmer p.7- 11.

Enviro Control, Inc. 1971. Systems Analysis for water quality management - survey and abstracts, Water Quality Office, US EPA SD 1 09/71 variable numbered pages.

Everest, F.H., C.E. McLemore, and J. F. Ward. 1980. An improved tri-tube cryogenic gravel sampler, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest For. and Range Exp. Sta., PNW-350, Portland, OR

Findley, S. H. 1994. Hydrologic modeling as a decision-making tool in wildlife management. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. ix + 164 pp.

Gruen, K. A. 1993. Mesoscale temperature estimates for western Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 164 pp.

Heede, B.H. 1977. Case study of a watershed rehabilitation project: Alkali Creek, Colorado., USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-189, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Exp. Station, 18p.

Helvey, J.D. 1981. Flood frequency and culvert sizes needed for small watersheds in the Central Appalachians. USDA Forest Serv, Gen Tech Report NE-62, Northeastern For Exp. Station.Broomall, PA, 7p.

Heatwole, C.A. and N.C. West. 1980. Race, income, and attitude toward beach cleanliness. Coastal Zone 80 2:1684-1696.

Johnson, J.E. 1990. Evaluating Soil properties for erosion. Use of soil surveys in applying forestry best management practices, Workshop notes, Lynchburg, Va, Virginia Tech, p 24-27.

Kilmer, V.J. et al. 1974. Nutrient losses from fertilized grassed watersheds in Western North Carolina. J. Environmental Quality 3(3): 214-219

Klopfer, S. D. 1998. Insolation, precipitation, and moisture maps for a Virginia geographic information system. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. 184 pp. electronic thesis access:

Lamb, B.L. and H. Meshorer 1973?. Comparing instream flow programs: a report on surrent status. Copy 1- 11.

Law, D.L. Mined-land rehabilitation, 1986?Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc., New York, NY. 184p.

Leak, W.B. and C.W. Martin. 1975. Relationship of stand age to streamwater nitrate in New Hampshire. USDA Forest Service, Upper Darby, Pa, USDA FS Research Note NE-211, 5p.

Mackin, J.H. 1938. The origin of Appalachian drainage - a reply [to Meyerhoff and Olmsted]. Am. J. Sci. 236:27-53.

Martin, S. M. 1988. Select geomorphological components of wildlife habitat in the Ridge and Valley Province of Virginia. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. 203 pp.

Megahan, W.F. 1973. Role of bedrock in watershed management. Proceedings of the Irrigation and Drainage Division Specialty Conf, Ft. Collins, CO, April 22-24, Amer Society of Civil Engineers, p. 449-470.

Meyerhoff, H.A. and E.W. Olmsted.1936. The origins of Appalachian drainage. Am. J. Sci. 232:21-41.

Milner, A.M. A.L. Robertson, K.A. Monaghan, A.J.Veal, and E.A. Flory. 2008. Colonization and development of an Alaskan stream community over 28 years. Frontiers in ecology and the environment. 6(8): 413-419.

Moore, D.G. and L.A. Norris 1979. Forest chemicals in watershed management of the Douglas-fir rwgion, reprint from Forest Soils of the Douglas-Fir region, Paul E Heilman et al editors, Conference Office, Pullman Washington

Morton, D. 1998. Landcover map of Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

Mosier 2004 Agriculture and the nitrogen cycle: assessing the impact of fertilizer use on food production and the environment, Island Press, Washington, DC.

Nielsen 1980. Water quality criteria and angler preference for important recreational fishes: report to Resources for the Future, Feb. 18, unpub ms. 18p.

Omernik, J.M. 1977. Nonpoint source -- stream nutrient level relationships: a nationwide study, Corvalis Env. Research Lab, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, Corvallis, OR EPA-600/3-77-105.

Parent, F.D. and S.B. Lovejoy. 1982. Farmers' attitudes toward governemtn involvement in preventing agricultural nonpoint resource water pollution. Water Resources Bulletin 18(4):593-597.

Pickett, S.T.A. and P.S. White. 1985. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 472p. (perhaps a stream reach is a patch?)

Postel, S. 2009. Water for life. Frontiers in ecology and the environment, 7(2):63

Sadler, R.R. 1970. Buffer strips: a possible application of decision theory. Tech note, Bureau Land Management, USDI.

Saunders, E. F. 1977. WATFLOW: A computer system to aid in reclaiming watersheds affected by surface mines. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va., xii + 296 p.

Stolnack, S.A., M.D. Bryant, and R.C. Wissmar. 2005. A review of protocols for monitoring streams and juvenile fish in forested regions of the Pacific Northwest., USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Ge, Tech, Report PNW-GRT-625, 36p.

Tague, C. and G.E. Grant. 2004. A geological framework for interpreting the low-flow regimes of Cascade streams, Willamette River Basin, Oregon. Water Resources Research 40:W04303

Vavra, M. 2005. Livestock grazing and wildlife: developing compatibilities. Rangeland Ecol. Manage 58:128-134

Ver Steeg, K.A. 1942. A study of Appalachian physiography. J. Geol. 50: 504-511.

Wajda, R. K. 1993. A site-specific rainfall model for Western Virginia ecosystems. M.S. Thesis, Va. Poly. Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, Va. xi + 143 pp.

Wenger, K.E. Forestry Handbook 2nd Ed. 1984.Joh Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. 1335p.

Williams, L.R., C.M. Taylor, M.L. Warren Jr., and J.A. Clingenpeel. 2002. Large-scale effects of timber harvesting on streams in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA. Environmental Management 29(1): 76-87.

Wright, F.J. 1942. Erosional history of the Southern Appalachian. J. Geomorph. 5:151-161

Zale, A.V. and D.M. Leslie, Jr. 1989. The physiochemistry, flora, and fauna of intermittent prairie streamsL a review of the literature. USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. Biological Report 89(5), 44p.


The Coastal Society

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Perhaps you will share ideas with Rural System staff about some of the topics above.

Robert H. Giles, Jr.
March 18, 2009; November, 2009; February 7, 2010